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Theory of Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins » Astronomy & Cosmology and God » FineTuning of the earth

FineTuning of the earth

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1 FineTuning of the earth on Sat Dec 21, 2013 2:06 pm


FineTuning of the earth

Argument by ‘the position of our planet’
1. If the sun where closer to the earth, we would burn up; if farther away we would freeze. 
2. If the earth was not tilted at 23 degrees, the areas near the poles would be dark and cold all year long.
3. If it tilted too much, the seasons would be very extreme for example, on the planet Uranus the winter is 42 years of total darkness!
4. If Earth did not have a large revolving moon, we would have no tides, causing the ocean waters to grow stagnant and produce no oxygen for its creatures.
5. What we see is a planet that is perfectly balanced for our habitation. We see design in the perfect balance.
6. When we see a design we know there is a Designer.
7. The structure of the universe, which is also like a universal clock, can be designed only by a greatest person.
8. That greatest person to design such huge things as a universe can be only God.
10. God exists.

The Finely Tuned Parameters of the Earth include:
- the Earth's just-right ozone layer filters out ultraviolet radiation and helps mitigate temperature swings
- the Earth's surface gravity strength preventing the atmosphere from losing water to space too rapidly
- the Earth's spin rate on its axis provides for a range of day and nightime temperatures to allow life to thrive
- the atmosphere's composition (oxygen, nitrogren, etc.)
- the atmosphere's pressure enables our lungs to function and water to evaporate at an optimal rate to support life
- the atmosphere's transparency to allow an optimal range of life-giving solar radiation to reach the surface
- the atmosphere's capactity to hold water vaper providing for stable temperature and rainfall ranges  
- efficient life-giving photosynthesis depends on quantum physics, as reported in the journal PNAS
- to prevent runaway consumption of all plant life, no species were created that could metabolize cellulose
- the water molecule's astounding robustness results from finely balanced quantum effects. As reported by New Scientist, "Water's life-giving properties exist on a knife-edge. It turns out that life as we know it relies on a fortuitous, but incredibly delicate, balance of quantum forces. ... We are used to the idea that the cosmos' physical constraints are fine-tuned for life. Now it seems water's quantum forces can be added to this 'just right' list."
- water is an unrivaled solvent; its low viscosity permits the tiniest blood vessels; its high specific heat stabilizes biosphere temperatures; its low thermal conductivity as a solid insulates frozen-over lakes and as a liquid its high conductivity lets organisms distribute heat; its an efficient lubricant; is only mildly reactive; has an anomalous (fish-saving) expansion when it freezes; its high vapor tension keeps moisture in the atmosphere; and it tastes great too!
- carbon atomthe phenomenally harmonious water cycle
- the carbon atom's astounding capabilities. As Cambridge astronomer Fred Hoyle wrote: "Some super-calculating intellect must have designed the properties of the carbon atom, otherwise the chance of my finding such an atom through the blind forces of nature would be utterly minuscule. A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question."
- etc., etc., etc.

The distance from the earth to the sun must be just right. Too near and water would evaporate, too far and the earth would be too cold for life. A change of only 2 per cent or so and all life would cease.  Surface gravity and temperature are also critical to within a few per cent for the earth to have a life-sustaining atmosphere – retaining the right mix of gases necessary for life. The planet must rotate at the right speed: too slow and temperature differences between day and night would be too extreme, too fast and wind speeds would be disastrous. And so the list goes on. Astrophysicist Hugh Ross[7] lists many such parameters that have to be fine-tuned for life to be possible, and makes a rough but conservative calculation that the chance of one such planet existing in the universe is about 1 in 1030.

SIZE AND GRAVITY: There is a range for the size of a planet and it gravity which supports life and it is small. A planet the size of Jupiter would have gravity that would crush any life form, and any high order carbon molecules, out of existence.
WATER: Without a sufficient amount of water, life could not exist.
ATMOSPHERE: Not only must a planet have an atmosphere, it must have a certain percentage of certain gasses to permit life. On earth the air we breath is 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% argon and carbon dioxide. Without the 78% nitrogen to “blanket’ the combustion of oxygen, our world would ‘burn up’ from oxidation. Nitrogen inhibits combustion and permits life to flourish. No other planet comes close to this makeup of atmosphere.
OXYGEN: The range of oxygen level in the atmosphere that permits life can be fairly broad, but oxygen is definitely necessary for life.
RARE EARTHS MINERALS: Many chemical processes necessary for life are dependent on elements we call ‘rare earth’ minerals. These only exist as ‘trace’ amounts, but without which life could not continue.
THE SUN: Our sun is an average star in both composition and size. The larger a star is the faster it burns out. It would take longer for life to develop than those larger stars would exist. Smaller stars last longer but do not develop properly to give off the heat and radiation necessary to sustain life on any planets that form. The smaller the star the less likely it will form a planetary system at all.
DISTANCE FROM THE SUN: To have a planet with a surface temperature within the bounds for life, it must be within the ‘biosphere’ of a star, a temperate zone of a given distance from the source of radiation and heat. That would depend on the size of the star. For an average star the size of our sun, that distance would be about 60 to 150 million miles.
RADIOACTIVITY: Without radioactivity, the earth would have cooled to a cold rock 3 billion years ago. Radioactivity is responsible for the volcanism, and heat generated in the interior of the earth. Volcanism is responsible for many of the rare elements we need as well as the oxygen in the air. Most rocky planets have some radioactivity.
DISTANCE AND PLACEMENT FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER: We receive very little of the x-rays and gamma rays given off from the galactic center, that would affect all life and its development on earth. We live on the outer rim of the Milky Way, in a less dense portion of the galaxy, away from the noise, dust, and dangers of the interior.
THE OZONE LAYER: Animal life on land survives because of the ozone layer which shields the ultraviolet rays from reaching the earth’s surface. The ozone layer would never have formed without oxygen reaching a given level of density in the atmosphere. A planet with less oxygen would not have an ozone layer.
VOLCANIC ACTIVITY: Volcanic activity is responsible for bringing heaver elements and gasses to the surface, as well as oxygen. Without this activity, the planet would never have sustained life in the first place.
EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD: We are bombarded daily with deadly rays from the sun, but are protected by the earth’s magnetic field.
SEASONS: Because of the earths tilt, we have seasons, and no part of the earth is extremely hot or cold. The seasons have balancing effect of the temperature on the surface and cause the winds and sea currents which we and all life depend on for a temperate climate.

Visible light is also incredibly fine-tuned for life to exist Though visible light is only a tiny fraction of the total electromagnetic spectrum coming from the sun, it happens to be the "most permitted" portion of the sun's spectrum allowed to filter through the our atmosphere. All the other bands of electromagnetic radiation, directly surrounding visible light, happen to be harmful to organic molecules, and are almost completely absorbed by the atmosphere. The tiny amount of harmful UV radiation, which is not visible light, allowed to filter through the atmosphere is needed to keep various populations of single cell bacteria from over-populating the world (Ross; The size of light's wavelengths and the constraints on the size allowable for the protein molecules of organic life, also seem to be tailor-made for each other. This "tailor-made fit" allows photosynthesis, the miracle of sight, and many other things that are necessary for human life. These specific frequencies of light (that enable plants to manufacture food and astronomers to observe the cosmos) represent less than 1 trillionth of a trillionth (10^-24) of the universe's entire range of electromagnetic emissions. Like water, visible light also appears to be of optimal biological utility (Denton; Nature's Destiny).

Distance of the earth from the sun : Malcolm Bowden says, "If it were 5% closer, then the water would boil up from the oceans and if it were just 1% farther away, then the oceans would freeze, and that gives you just some idea of the knife edge we are on."

The carbon dioxide level in atmosphere  If greater: runaway greenhouse effect would develop.  If less: plants would be unable to maintain efficient photosynthesis

Oxygen quantity in atmosphere If greater: plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easily.  If less: advanced animals would have too little to breathe

Nitrogen quantity in atmosphere If greater: too much buffering of oxygen for advanced animal respiration; too much nitrogen fixation for support of diverse plant species.  
If less: too little buffering of oxygen for advanced animal respiration; too little nitrogen fixation for support of diverse plant species.

Atmospheric pressure: If too small: liquid water will evaporate too easily and condense too infrequently; weather and climate variation would be too extreme; lungs will not function. If too large: liquid water will not evaporate easily enough for land life; insufficient sunlight reaches planetary surface; insufficient uv radiation reaches planetary surface; insufficient climate and weather variation; lungs will not function

Atmospheric transparency:If smaller: insufficient range of wavelengths of solar radiation reaches planetary surface . If greater: too broad a range of wavelengths of solar radiation reaches planetary surface

stratospheric ozone quantity:If smaller: too much uv radiation reaches planet’s surface causing skin cancers and reduced plant growth . If larger: too little uv radiation reaches planet’s surface causing reduced plant growth and insufficient vitamin production for animals

Requirements Related to Planet Earth

Correct planetary distance from star
Correct inclination of planetary orbit

Correct axis tilt of planet

This has had important ramifications for life on the Earth as major and frequent shifts in this obliquity would have led to significant and rapid changes in the Earth's climate due to changes in insolation values at the poles and equator. A similar mechanism has been suggested to explain the apparent contradictions in the climate record of Mars.

The current relatively moderate axial tilt of the Earth ensures that the difference in heating between the poles and equator is sufficient to promote a healthy and diverse range of climatic zones without veering from one extreme to another (e.g. Snowball Earth hypothesis). In particular, the stability of the Earth's axial tilt produced by the Moon, coupled with the break up of the Pangean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic, produced a diverse set of climate zones (with their associated ecological niches) compared with what had gone before during the time of the dinosaurs. This helped set the stage for the rise of the mammals, including Man.

Correct rate of change of axial tilt
Correct period and size of axis tilt variation
Correct planetary rotation period
Correct rate of change in planetary rotation period
Correct planetary revolution period
Correct planetary orbit eccentricity
Correct rate of change of planetary orbital eccentricity
Correct rate of change of planetary inclination
Correct period and size of eccentricity variation
Correct period and size of inclination variation
Correct precession in planet’s rotation
Correct rate of change in planet’s precession
Correct number of moons
Correct mass and distance of moon
Correct surface gravity (escape velocity)
Correct tidal force from sun and moon
Correct magnetic field
Correct rate of change & character of change in magnetic field
Correct albedo (planet reflectivity)
Correct density density of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles in vicinity of life-support planet
Correct reducing strength of planet’s primordial mantle
Correct thickness of crust
Correct timing of birth of continent formation
Correct oceans-to-continents ratio
Correct rate of change in oceans to continents ratio
Correct global distribution of continents
Correct frequency, timing, & extent of ice ages
Correct frequency, timing, & extent of global snowball events
Correct silicate dust annealing by nebular shocks
Correct asteroidal & cometary collision rate
Correct change in asteroidal & cometary collision rates
Correct rate of change in asteroidal & cometary collision rates
Correct mass of body colliding with primordial Earth
Correct timing of body colliding with primordial Earth
Correct location of body’s collision with primordial Earth
Correct position & mass of Jupiter relative to Earth
Correct major planet eccentricities
Correct major planet orbital instabilities
Correct drift and rate of drift in major planet distances
Correct number & distribution of planets
Correct distance of gas giant planets from mean motion resonances
Correct orbital separation distances among inner planets
Correct oxygen quantity in the atmosphere
Correct nitrogen quantity in the atmosphere
Correct carbon monoxide quantity in the atmosphere
Correct chlorine quantity in the atmosphere
Correct aerosol particle density emitted from the forests
Correct cobalt quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct arsenic quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct copper quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct boron quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct cadmium quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct calcium quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct flourine quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct iodine quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct magnesium quantity in the earth’s crust
Correct nickel quantity in crust
Correct phosphorus quantity in crust
Correct potassium quantity in crust
Correct tin quantity in crust
Correct zinc quantity in crust
Correct molybdenum quantity in crust
Correct vanadium quantity in crust
Correct chromium quantity in crust
Correct selenium quantity in crust
Correct iron quantity in oceans
Correct tropospheric ozone quantity
Correct stratospheric ozone quantity
Correct mesospheric ozone quantity
Correct water vapor level in atmosphere
Correct oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere
Correct quantity of greenhouse gases in atmosphere
Correct quantity of greenhouse gases in atmosphere
Correct rate of change in greenhouse gases in atmosphere
Correct poleward heat transport in atmosphere by mid-latitude storms
Correct quantity of forest & grass fires
Correct quantity of sea salt aerosols in troposphere
Correct soil mineralization
Correct quantity of anaeorbic bacteria in the oceans
Correct quantity of aerobic bacteria in the oceans
Correct quantity of anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the early oceans
Correct quantity, variety, and timing of sulfate-reducing bacteria
Correct quantity of geobacteraceae
Correct quantity of aerobic photoheterotrophic bacteria
Correct quantity of decomposer bacteria in soil
Correct quantity of mycorrhizal fungi in soil
Correct quantity of nitrifying microbes in soil
Correct quantity & timing of vascular plant introductions
Correct quantity, timing, & placement of carbonate-producing animals
Correct quantity, timing, & placement of methanogens
Correct phosphorus and iron absorption by banded iron formations
Correct quantity of soil sulfur
Correct ratio of electrically conducting inner core radius to radius of the adjacent turbulent fluid shell
Correct ratio of core to shell (see above) magnetic diffusivity
Correct magnetic Reynold’s number of the shell (see above)
Correct elasticity of iron in the inner core
Correct electromagnetic Maxwell shear stresses in the inner core
Correct core precession frequency for planet
Correct rate of interior heat loss for planet
Correct quantity of sulfur in the planet’s core
Correct quantity of silicon in the planet’s core
Correct quantity of water at subduction zones in the crust
Correct quantity of high pressure ice in subducting crustal slabs
Correct hydration rate of subducted minerals
Correct water absorption capacity of planet’s lower mantle
Correct tectonic activity
Correct rate of decline in tectonic activity
Correct volcanic activity
Correct rate of decline in volcanic activity
Correct location of volcanic eruptions
Correct continental relief
Correct viscosity at Earth core boundaries
Correct viscosity of lithosphere
Correct thickness of mid-mantle boundary
Correct rate of sedimentary loading at crustal subduction zones
Correct biomass to comet infall ratio
Correct regularity of cometary infall
Correct number, intensity, and location of hurricanes
Correct intensity of primordial cosmic superwinds
Correct number of smoking quasars
Correct formation of large terrestrial planet in the presence of two or more gas giant planets
Correct orbital stability of large terrestrial planet in the presence of two or more gas giant planets
Correct total mass of Oort Cloud objects
Correct mass distribution of Oort Cloud objects
Correct air turbulence in troposphere
Correct quantity of sulfate aerosols in troposphere
Correct quantity of actinide bioreducing bacteria
Correct quantity of phytoplankton
Correct hydrothermal alteration of ancient oceanic basalts
Correct quantity of iodocarbon-emitting marine organisms
Correct location of dislocation creep relative to diffusion creep in and near the crust-mantle boundary (determines mantle convection dynamics)
Correct size of oxygen sinks in the planet’s crust
Correct size of oxygen sinks in the planet’s mantle
Correct mantle plume production
Correct average rainfall precipitation
Correct variation and timing of average rainfall precipitation
Correct atmospheric transparency
Correct atmospheric pressure
Correct atmospheric viscosity
Correct atmospheric electric discharge rate
Correct atmospheric temperature gradient
Correct carbon dioxide level in atmosphere
Correct rates of change in carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere throughout the planet’s history
Correct rates of change in water vapor levels in atmosphere throughout the planet’s history
Correct rate of change in methane level in early atmosphere
Correct Q-value (rigidity) of planet during its early history
Correct variation in Q-value of planet during its early history
Correct migration of planet during its formation in the protoplanetary disk
Correct viscosity gradient in protoplanetary disk
Correct frequency of late impacts by large asteroids and comets
Correct size of the carbon sink in the deep mantle of the planet
Correct ratio of dual water molecules, (H2O)2, to single water molecules, H 2O, in the troposphere
Correct quantity of volatiles on and in Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone
Correct triggering of El Nino events by explosive volcanic eruptions
Correct time window between the peak of kerogen production and the appearance of intelligent life
Correct time window between the production of cisterns in the planet’s crust that can effectively collect and store petroleum and natural gas and the appearance of intelligent life
Correct efficiency of flows of silicate melt, hypersaline hydrothermal fluids, and hydrothermal vapors in the upper crust
Correct efficiency of ocean pumps that return nutrients to ocean surfaces
Correct sulfur and sulfate content of oceans
Correct orientation of continents relative to prevailing winds
Correct infall of buckminsterfullerenes from interplanetary and interstellar space upon surface of planet
Correct quantity of silicic acid in the oceans
Correct heat flow through the planet’s mantle from radiometric decay in planet’s core
Correct water absorption by planet’s mantle

Factors Necessary for a Habitable Planet Supporting Complex Life
Liquid Water
Within galactic habitable zone
Circumstellar Habitable Zone
Orbiting main sequence G2 dwarf star
Protected by gas giant planets
Nearly circular orbit
Oxygen rich atmosphere
Correct mass
Orbited by large moon
Magnetic field
Plate tectonics
Ratio of liquid water and continents
Terrestrial planet
Moderate rate of rotation
Probability of every factor randomly coinciding at the same time? 10-15th That’s 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 Or one-one-thousandth of one-one-trillionth… By comparison, there are 100 billion stars in our galaxy. Certainly a large number, but the probability is so small that it makes a habitable planet very unlikely.
Additionally, habitability does not mean life exists necessarily, or is even probable, only that it could be possible.
What are the odds?
What would you think if you were flipping a coin with a friend and it came up heads over and over?
What are the odds of flipping a coin and getting heads 50 times in a row?
1 in a Quadrillion
A quadrillion is a MILLION BILLION 10,000,000,000,000,000 That is 10 to the 15th

Last edited by Admin on Mon Jan 23, 2017 6:59 am; edited 1 time in total

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2 Re: FineTuning of the earth on Mon Jan 23, 2017 6:57 am


The Earth…its size is perfect. The Earth’s size and corresponding gravity holds a thin layer of mostly nitrogen and oxygen gases, only extending about 50 miles above the Earth’s surface.If Earth were smaller, an atmosphere would be impossible, like the planet Mercury. If Earth were larger, its atmosphere would contain free hydrogen, like Jupiter.(4) Earth is the only known planet equipped with an atmosphere of the right mixture of gases to sustain plant, animal and human life.The Earth is located the right distance from the sun. Consider the temperature swings we encounter, roughly -30 degrees to +120 degrees. If the Earth were any further away from the sun, we would all freeze. Any closer and we would burn up.Even a fractional variance in the Earth’s position to the sun would make life on Earth impossible. The Earth remains this perfect distance from the sun while it rotates around the sun at a speed of nearly 67,000 mph. It is also rotating on its axis, allowing the entire surface of the Earth to be properly warmed and cooled every day.

And our moon is the perfect size and distance from the Earth for its gravitational pull. The moon creates important ocean tides and movement so ocean waters do not stagnate, and yet it restrains our massive oceans from spilling over across the continents.

Water…colorless, odorless and without taste, and yet no living thing can survive without it. Plants, animals and human beings consist mostly of water (about two-thirds of the human body is water). You’ll see why the characteristics of water are uniquely suited to life…It has an unusually high boiling point and freezing point. Water allows us to live in an environment of fluctuating temperature changes, while keeping our bodies a steady 98.6 degrees.Water is a universal solvent. Take a full glass of water, add a cup of sugar, and nothing spills over the edge; the water simply absorbs the sugar. This property of water means that thousands of chemicals, minerals and nutrients can be carried throughout our bodies and into the smallest blood vessels.(6)Water is also chemically inert. Without affecting the makeup of the substances it carries, water enables food, medicines and minerals to be absorbed and used by the body.Water has a unique surface tension. Water in plants can therefore flow upward against gravity, bringing life-giving water and nutrients to the top of even the tallest trees.
Water freezes from the top down and floats, so fish can live in the winter.Ninety-seven percent of the Earth’s water is in the oceans. But on our Earth, there is a system designed which removes salt from the water and then distributes that water throughout the globe. Evaporation takes the ocean waters, leaving the salt, and forms clouds which are easily moved by the wind to disperse water over the land, for vegetation, animals and people. It is a system of purification and supply that sustains life on this planet, a system of recycled and reused water.

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