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1 The-wonders-of-water on Fri Feb 21, 2014 9:35 am

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The-wonders-of-water

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1532-the-wonders-of-water

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116000502
A.E. Kabeel, Z.M. Omara, F.A. Essa and A.S. Abdullah
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, vol. 59, issue C, pages 839-857



We owe the modern names for the elemental building blocks of water – hydrogen and oxygen – to Antoine Lavoisier, one of the greatest of the pioneering eighteenth-century chemists. Great though he undoubtedly was, however, he made a fundamental error in naming these two elements that persists to this day. He named hydrogen, entirely appropriately, from the Greek ‘hydro’ (meaning water) and ‘genes’ (meaning creator). Oxygen, however, with its Greek root of ‘oxys’ (meaning acid), incorrectly suggests that oxygen is a component of all acids. It would have been more accurate to call hydrogen ‘oxygen’, in that the majority of common acid-base chemical reactions involve the transfer of protons, which are the nuclei of hydrogen. But Lavoisier’s names have stayed with us, so oxygen will forever be ‘the acid giver’, which it isn’t. By 1804, the final elemental description of water was given in a paper by the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt. Together, they demonstrated that water consisted of two volumes of hydrogen to one of oxygen, and thus gave the world the most widely known of all chemical formulae: H2O. If Lavoisier had got it right, we’d call water O2H rather than H2O. Such is history. 2

This shouldn’t be surprising when you consider that hydrogen and oxygen are two of the most abundant atoms in the Universe. Hydrogen forms 74 per cent of all the elemental mass. The second lightest element, helium, comprises 24 percent. These two elements dominate because they were formed in the first few minutes after the Big Bang. Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the cosmos, at around 1 per cent by mass. Most of the rest is carbon; all the other elements are present in much smaller quantities. All of the oxygen and carbon atoms in the Universe today, including all of those in your body, were produced in the cores of stars by nuclear fusion and scattered out into space as the stars died. Apart from helium, which is satisfied with its full inner shell of two electrons, these atoms have an affinity for each other because of their desire to pair up their solitary electrons. As a result, they tend to form molecules. After the hydrogen molecule (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), water is the third most common molecule in the Universe.


Water! We drink it, wash in it, cook with it, swim in it and generally take it for granted. This clear, tasteless and odorless liquid is so much part of our lives that we hardly ever think about its amazing properties. We would die in a few days without water—and our bodies are 65% water. Water is necessary to dissolve essential minerals and oxygen, flush our bodies of waste products, and transport nutrients around the body where needed. Water is the only substance that has these properties. And as we shall see, it has many more fascinating features that suggest that it has been designed ‘just right’ for life.

There are three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. All three are essential for living things.

   The solid state maintains its shape.
   Liquid is able to flow and take up the shape of its container, while keeping the same total volume.
   A gas expands to fill both the shape and size of its container.

For molecules to react together, it is best to have them close to each other, but free to move around. This is just what the liquid state provides, so it is ideal for all the thousands of chemical reactions occurring in every cell of every organism.

But of all the temperatures in the universe from the –270°C (–454°F) of outer space to the tens of millions of degrees inside the hottest stars, water is liquid in a very narrow range. At normal atmospheric pressure, water is only liquid from 0–100°C (32–212°F). It should not then be surprising that Earth is the only place in the universe known to have liquid water. And this depends on having the right kind of star—neither too bright nor too dim, and thus neither too big nor too small. And the planet must be at the right distance from it [see also The sun: our special star].
Why is ice so slippery?

Many people enjoy winter sports such as ice skating and skiing. What makes ice so slippery, allowing these fun activities? Many people believe that it comes from pressure melting the ice and forming a lubricating liquid layer. True, it is well-known to physical chemists that applied pressure tends to help form the substance which takes up the least room. Therefore pressure will favour production of water from ice (melting), so its melting point will decrease.

But the effect is much smaller than many people think—about 100 times normal air pressure lowers the melting point by only one Celsius degree.3 So there is no way that this effect could be responsible for ice skating, and certainly not for skiing where the pressure is far less. Nor could it have caused planes to melt ice and sink 75 metres (250 feet)—see The lost squadron.

The true reason is yet another unusual property—the molecules on the surface of ice vibrate much more than usual in a solid, although they don’t move around. This gives the surface a ‘quasi-liquid’ character, i.e. liquid-like but not liquid.4
Temperature buffer

Another very important property of water is its high specific heat. This means it takes a lot of energy to heat it (about ten times as much as the same mass of iron), and it must lose a lot of energy to cool down. So the vast bodies of water on earth help keep the earth’s temperature fairly steady. On the other hand, land masses heat up and cool down more quickly. When combined with the fairly steady temperature of water bodies, this is a good thing. It means different parts of the atmosphere are heated differently, which generates wind. This is essential for keeping the air fresh.

When liquids evaporate, they draw in heat from their surroundings. This means that we have a useful means of keeping cool: sweating. An essential part of this is water’s high latent heat of vaporization. This means it takes much more energy to evaporate water than most other liquids. So we need to perspire comparatively little water to keep cool; if we sweat nearly any other liquid, the amount we would need would be enormous.
Drawing of insect supported by water's surface tension
Surface tension

Water has a very high surface tension, the force trying to keep the surface area as small as possible. It is higher than that of a syrupy liquid like glycerol. Surface tension tends to make bubbles and drops spherical, and is strong enough to support light objects, including some insects. More importantly, this means that biological compounds can be concentrated near the surface, speeding up many of life’s important reactions.
Water’s power

Although water usually appears placid, if a lot of it is moving fast enough, it can move car-sized boulders and carve deep canyons, even cutting into solid rock. When flowing very fast, an especially destructive process called cavitation occurs—see Interview with Dr Edmond Holroyd for more details.

Also, on a chemical level, it quickly breaks down many important large molecules in living cells. While living cells have many ingenious repair mechanisms, DNA cannot last very long in water outside a cell.5 A recent article in New Scientist also described this as a ‘headache’ for researchers working on evolutionary ideas on the origin of life.6 It also showed its materialistic bias by saying this was not ‘good news’. But the real bad news is surely the faith in evolution (everything made itself), which overrides objective science. [For a more technical explanation, see Origin of life: the polymerization problem.]
Super solvent

Water is one of the nearest things we have to a “universal solvent". Many minerals and vitamins can be transported throughout the body after being dissolved. Dissolved sodium and potassium ions are essential for nerve impulses. Water also dissolves gases, such as oxygen from the air, enabling water-living animals to use oxygen. Water, a major component of blood,1 also dissolves carbon dioxide, a waste product from energy production in all cells, and transports it to the lungs, where it can be breathed out.2

However, a truly universal solvent would be no use, because no container could store it! But water is repelled by oily compounds, so our cells have membranes made of these. Many of our proteins have partly oily regions, and they tend to fold together, repelled by the surrounding water. This is partly responsible for the many and varied shapes of proteins. These shapes are essential for carrying out functions vital for life.
Insight into ice

A vital and very unusual property of water is that it expands as it freezes, unlike most other substances. That is why icebergs float. In fact, water contracts normally as it is cooled, until it reaches 4°C (39.2°F), when it starts to expand again. This means that icy-cold water is less dense, so tends to move upwards. This is very important. Most liquids exposed to cold air would cool, and the cold liquid would sink, forcing more liquid to rise and be cooled by the air. Eventually all the liquid would lose heat to the air and freeze, from the bottom up, till completely frozen. But with water, the cold regions, being less dense, stay on top, allowing the warmer regions to stay below and avoid losing heat to the air. This means that the surface may be frozen, but fish can still live in the water below. But if water were like other substances, large bodies of water, such as North America’s Great Lakes, would be frozen solid, with dire effects on life on earth as a whole.
Did you know?

   The earth is 70% covered by water. The oceans contain about 1,370 million cubic kilometres (334 million cubic miles) of water. The total amount of rain falling on the land each year is about 110,300 cubic kilometres.
   Only 1% of the world’s water is readily available for human consumption. Approximately 97% is too salty and 2% is ice. This 2% is still a staggering 29 million cubic kilometres (7    million cubic miles) of water, locked up in earth's vast ice caps and glaciers.
   Australia is the world’s driest inhabited continent having the least runoff and 70% desert.
   It takes about 150,000 litres of water to make a family car.
   Only 1% of household water usage is for drinking. The rest goes on lawns, showers, etc.
   A household toilet flushes about 150 litres of water per day.
   A continuously dribbling tap wastes 600 litres of water per day. A dripping tap per day (1 drip per second) uses 30 litres.
   Garden mulching reduces evaporation by 75%.
   An average garden sprinkler uses 1000 litres per hour.
   Natural water has in it small amounts of dissolved mineral salts, which give it a taste. Pure water is tasteless.


Life also needs a solvent, which provides a medium for chemical reactions. The best possible solvent should dissolve many types of molecules, transporting them to reaction sites while preserving their integrity. It should be in the liquid state since the solid state doesn’t allow for mobility and the gaseous one doesn’t allow for sufficiently frequent reactions. Further, the solvent should be liquid over the same range of temperatures where the basic molecules of life remain largely intact and in the liquid or gaseous state. Water, the most abundant chemical compound in the universe, exquisitely meets these requirements. In fact, water far exceeds these basic requirements for life chemistry.  First, water is virtually unique in being denser as a liquid than as a solid (the element bismuth is another substance with this property). As a result, ice floats on water, insulating the water underneath from further loss of heat. This simple fact also prevents lakes and oceans from freezing from the bottom up. It’s very difficult, if not impossible, to alter such a situation once attained. If ice were to sink to the bottom, it would remain there, unable to melt, separated from the Sun’s warmth. Surface ice also helps to regulate the climate by altering Earth’s ability to absorb or reflect sunlight. Second, water has very high latent heats when changing from a solid to a liquid to a gas. So more heat is needed to vaporize one gram of water than the same amount of any other known substance at ambient surface temperature (and higher than most others at any temperature). This means that it takes an unusually large amount of heat to convert liquid water to vapor. Similarly, vapor releases the same amount of heat when it condenses back to liquid water. As a result, water helps moderate Earth’s climate and helps larger organisms regulate their body temperatures. This characteristic also permits smallish bodies of water to exist on land; otherwise, ponds and lakes would evaporate more easily. In all three cases, if a gram of water evaporated with less heat, it would remove less heat from a surface. It’s probably no coincidence that water is found in all three states at Earth’s surface, and that the mean surface temperature is near the triple point of water—a unique combination of pressure and temperature where all three states can coexist. Not only does this provide a diverse set of surfaces, but it also best exploits water’s anomalous properties for regulating the temperature. Third, liquid water’s surface tension, which is higher than that of almost all other liquids, gives it better capillary action in soils, trees, and circulatory systems, a greater ability to form discrete structures with membranes, and the power to speed up chemical reactions at its surface. Finally, water is probably essential for starting and maintaining Earth’s plate tectonics, an important part of the climate regulation system. Frank H. Stillinger, an expert on water, observed, “It is striking that so many eccentricities should occur together in one substance.” While water has more properties that are valuable for life than nearly all other elements or compounds, each property also interacts with the others to yield a biologically useful end. Michael Denton describes one of these ends, the weathering of rock:

Take, for example, the weathering of rocks and its end result, the distribution of vital minerals upon which life depends via rivers to the oceans and ultimately throughout the hydrosphere. It is the high surface tension of water which draws it into the crevices of the rock; it is its highly anomalous expansion on freezing which cracks the rock, producing additional crevices for further weathering and increasing the surface area available for the solvation action of water in leaching out the elements. On top of all this, ice possesses the appropriate viscosity and strength to form hard, grinding rivers or glaciers which reduce the rocks broken and fractured by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing to tiny particles of glacial silt. The low viscosity of water confers on it the ability to flow rapidly in rivers and mountain streams and to carry at high speed those tiny particles of rock and glacial silt which contribute further to the weathering process and the breaking down of the mountains. The chemical reactivity of water and its great solvation power also contribute to the weathering process, dissolving out the minerals and elements from the rocks and eventually distributing them throughout the hydrosphere.

This chemical and mechanical distribution of vital elements is an important part of chemical weathering, which is also an important part of Earth’s climate regulation system 1

1. A privileged planet, Gonzalez , page 33
2. WONDERS OF LIFE, Brian Cox, page 37



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2 Re: The-wonders-of-water on Wed Apr 02, 2014 1:27 pm

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http://www.intelligentdesigntheory.info/unique_properties_of_water.htm

Twenty Three Unique Properties of Water

There are many unique properties of water, including the density of water, the chemical and the physical properties of water. These are properties that water should not have according to what we presently know about chemistry and physics. These characteristics strongly point to water as the result of Intelligent Design. Intelligent Design Theory should be taught in school.

The fact that God put certain processes in water to preserve our lakes for six thousand years cannot be taught in public schools. So after hundreds of billions of dollars wasted over the past thirty-six years, the scientific community has failed to restore all but a few lakes, while this author has restored over three thousand lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers by utilizing and accelerating these processes for water pollution control.

Water evaporates and goes up into the atmosphere to return to earth as rain thousands of miles away. As a result, water is distributed throughout the earth, producing life. A few of the billions of water molecules that Jesus drank at the well in Samaria two thousand years ago may be flowing in your bloodstream today.

At the time of creation, eight of what I call the H2 hydrogen atom in Section 9 combined to make the oxygen atom. When one more H2 hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom combined to make the water molecule, it was necessary for this molecule to possess at least twenty-one anomalies, properties that the laws of chemistry and physics says it should not have, in order to produce and perpetuate life. It follows that water is an extremely complex and important part of the web of life, and is probably the reason why Jesus referred to the Holy Spirit as 'living water.' The more we learn about the role of water in photosynthesis, the more we realize that, as in Genesis 1, the Spirit of God still moves upon the face of the waters.

Anomalies of water:

Materials That Dissolve in Water

1)         Water has an unusual ability to dissolve other substances.

Dielectric Strength

2)         Water has an anomalously high dielectric constant (Table 3 below).
Colloidal

3)         Water has the ability to form colloidal sols.

Hydrogen

4)         The water molecule can form hydrogen bridges with other molecules.

These four anomalous properties give water the ability to transport minerals and waste products in water bodies, plants and animals.  It gives water the ability to hold oxygen for animal life, and carbon dioxide for plant life.

The unique dipole moment of water establishes the enormous extent of permanent-polarized bonding (ionic bonding), and the angle between chemical bonds.  These determine the water's ability to create the multitude of necessary molecules involved in every life process.  For example, intra-molecular hydrogen bonding between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in N--H bonds enables molecules to fold into proteins having specific three-dimensional shapes essential for biological activity.  If the angle between hydrogen atoms in the water molecule were different, there would be no complex life-giving molecules, and no life on earth.

Water Flow

5) The Directional Flow of Water: Water flows. When it rains, water comes down to the earth to nourish all life. It then flows towards streams and rivers to the sea where it evaporates and goes back into the atmosphere to repeat the cycle. The unidirectional flow of water in the evaporation/condensation cycle enables water all over the earth to continuously cleanse itself.

Because of the evaporation/condensation cycle that perpetuates life on earth, water tends to generally flow in the same direction. Because of this cycle, not only does man look up to heaven from whence comes his help, but so does virtually every other living organism. Many creatures were given fascinating features, such as anchors, moved by delicate threads spun out from their toes; or suction cups or sticky substances because water flows. Some organisms strain water by means of nets which they have grown or spun. Other organisms have special features of their mouths so they can obtain food with little expenditure of energy.

Because water flows, it is oxygenated and purified, and picks up nutrients for plant and animal life. Because water flows, currents carry fresh water to the equator and to the poles. Lakes near the equator have a higher oxygen demand, and accordingly are freshened by heavier rainfalls, hurricanes, typhoons, winds and wave action than lakes with lower oxygen demand.

Contraction

6) Water anomalously contracts at 3.9oC.  This causes an inversion and restoration of water bodies.  It takes surface oxygen down to the bottom and raises bottom toxic gases to the surface to be neutralized and exhausted. Water is not supposed to be most dense as a liquid at 4o C, or about 40o F. All other liquids are most dense when they reach the freezing or solid state. Because of this anomaly, we have spring and fall turnover of lakes in the temperate climates.

Without spring and fall turnover, oxygenated surface water would not go to the bottom of lakes twice a year to enable life to exist at the lake bottom so that organic sediment could be biodegraded, bottom toxic gases brought up to the surface and removed, and fish to spawn and feed on bottom-feeding insects. Without this turnover, there would be no life in our lakes. In the sub-tropic and tropic zones on earth, spring and fall turnover is replaced by hurricanes, typhoons, monsoons and torrential rains (another coincidence or Intelligent Design?).

Expansion

7) Water is one of the only compounds that expands when it freezes.  If it contracted as other compounds do, ice would sink and destroy life. Without this anomaly, ice would sink to the bottom of lakes, and the lakes in the temperate and arctic climates would be frozen from the bottom up.

Ice and Steam

8)Water has an unusually high melting temperature of 0oC instead of -80oC.  Its boiling temperature is +100oC, instead of about -70oC.   Graphs of adjacent molecules in the Periodic Table of Elements show a straight line relationship of melting and boiling points far below 0oC.  As examples, the hydrides of chlorine and fluorine have this same dipole characteristic, but fall smoothly on the graphs. 15

According to water's neighboring molecules in the Periodic Table of Elements, ice should melt somewhere around -100o C instead of 0o C and should boil at about -80o C instead of 100o C. If it did as it should, all water would be in the gaseous state and there would be no life on earth.

The water molecule has a unique dipolar nature.  This enables hydrogen atoms that are bonded covalently to the oxygen atom of one molecule to bond to the oxygen atom of adjacent water molecules.  These interactions must be disrupted to boil water and therefore causes its boiling point to be much higher than it would be if there was no hydrogen bonding.  Without this anomaly, there would be no liquid water or life on earth at earth temperatures.

Dielectric Strength

9) Water has an extremely high dielectric strength compared to other liquids. This gives water the ability to dissolve compounds that other liquids do not have. This peculiar nature of water permits all living organisms to transport minerals and waste products to the necessary parts of their bodies. If water could not readily dissolve compounds, there would be no life on earth.

Surface Tension


10) Water has a surface tension 2 – 4 times the surface tension of most organic liquids. Surface tension is highest for pure water. This enables insects called neuston to walk and live on the surface of water in low-nutrient water bodies, where they would starve if immersed in the water. This anomaly permits life when the water nutrients are too low to support life. This helps add nutrients to the subsurface water so that it will support life and insects and so that fish can then live below the surface.

Surface tension of water decreases when there are nutrients in the water.  Water changes its surface tension to not support neuston when nutrients in the subsurface water can support life.  This prevents further nutrient influx to the water from neuston and helps protect subsurface species from destruction by excessive nutrients.

Specific Heat

11) Another self-protective anomaly of water is its very high specific heat compared to other materials. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise its temperature. This means that it is more difficult to raise the temperature of water compared to other substances. For example, the specific heat (the amount of heat in calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of material 1 0 C) for water is 1.0, while the specific heat for rocks is only about 0.2.  If water is frozen, its specific heat becomes half, so ice tends to warm easily. If it is liquid, it tends to be more difficult to raise the temperature. To boil, it requires a specific heat of 80. Because of this phenomenon, water tends to remain near the most desirable temperature for life on earth regardless of drastic changes in atmospheric temperatures. The anomalously high specific heat of water and the right quantity of water stabilizes earth's temperature.

Evaporation

12) Water has an extremely high heat of evaporation of water compared to other liquids. The extremely high heat of evaporation causes evaporative cooling to increase in plants, animals and water bodies as temperature increases. The high evaporation rate cools plants and animals, protecting living organisms from over-heating. Its high evaporation and condensation rates match required rainfall for most of the earth.

Density

13) Warm water is less dense than cold water. Because of this, warm water floats on the surface of lakes, rivers and the oceans insulating the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms. In combination with its anomalously poor conductivity, the floating warm water insulates water bodies and living organisms against excessive heating.

Conductivity

14) Water is a poor conductor of heat compared to most other materials. The anomalously poor conductivity of water protects living organisms from freezing or boiling. This also protects the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms.

Osmosis and Capillary Force


15) Water also has the ability to pass through cell membranes and climb great heights in plants and trees through osmosis and capillary force. Osmotic pressure and capillary action enable water to climb hundreds of feet to the tops of the highest trees.  The mystery of osmosis enables plants to feed, and plants and animals to carry on a multitude of life processes.  Osmosis enables marine creatures to absorb fresh water in an increasing salt-water environment.  Then an increase in cell pressure causes the osmosis to reverse itself and preserve the life of the creature.  The same mysterious action takes place on a micro-scale within the bodies of all creatures.

Viscosity, Relaxation Time and Self-diffusion:

16, 17 and 18) Three more anomalies of water are an excessive decrease in viscosity, decrease in molecular relaxation time, and increased rate of self diffusion with temperature rises.  These also protect plants, animals, and water bodies against excessive temperatures by improving circulation.

Carbon Dioxide

19) Another characteristic of water is its ability to enable carbon dioxide to be released from bicarbonates to support plant life.  Water enables carbon dioxide to attach to carbonates. It is then carried in the bloodstream to capillaries in the lungs and exhausted to keep animals alive.  It can be carried to plants in soil and water to perpetuate plant life.

All of these anomalies of water protect not only the water bodies on the earth, but also protect the lives of all living organisms as it flows through the organisms performing its necessary life-giving functions. This strange behavior of water was built into the protons and electrons that made water at the time of creation. These anomalies of water must have been planned by an extremely intelligent Creator, rather than by accident as perceived by the mainstream scientific community.

Water has many more characteristics that result in life.  The unique physical properties of water, the chemistry of water, the density of water are anomalies that strongly suggest that an Infinite Intelligence created water.  If only one of these functions were missing, there would be no life on earth.

Sound and Color

20. Water is one of God's greatest inventions. Without all the anomalies that He put in water, there would be no life. The sound and color of water is water giving praise to God, just like the sound of birds, and the color and majesty of flowers and the beauty of all creatures. All these things cause humans to subconsciously give praise and awe to God. People flock to beaches to listen to the roar or the lapping of the waves, which is God's way of oxygenating the oceans so all the sea creatures can live. People go to the bases of waterfalls to hear the water. They rest beside bubbling streams. They love the sound of raindrops. They even love the quietness of falling snow flakes. Think of the beautiful sunsets and sunrises on lakes, and the beautiful transparent, green and blue colors of water as light shines through it.

Sound travels through sea water about 4.5 times as fast as it travels through air (1531 m/s vs. 343 m/s), and is much louder than in air. At 1531 meters, that's 16.7 football fields in one second! This gives fishes an opportunity to escape danger, and enables many sea creatures such as dolphins and whales to communicate over very long distances, even thousands of kilometers. At 500 Hz, 20o C water, Sonar is used to find objects up to 10 km away. The attenuation of sound in water depends on many factors such as frequency, intensity of the sound, depth, temperature, water chemistry, background sounds, and scatter such as from a school of fish. Dolphin seek out retarded children and the 8 Hz sound that they make seems to promote healing. Therefore dolphins have been used to heal brain-damaged children:
http://lightworkers.org/video/146652/8-hz-healing-sound-dolphins
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/wisdom-of-the-wild/dolphin-healing/859/
http://www.operationsunshine.org/html/dolphin_healing.html


On dry land, the sound of ocean waves converts moist, sticky grayish-tan sea salt into dry white salt granules. This can be demonstrated away from the sea by placing commercial grade sea salt near a recording of ocean waves in a laboratory. Other sounds do not affect the salt. Does this mean that Intelligent Design has provided a means for humans and animals to utilize sea salt in their diets?

The sound of rain (2 -10 Hz) is used by sleep therapists to help people sleep. When you listen to the sound of water and see the beautiful colors of water, think of our Intelligent Designer who gave water all of its unique properties.

Light

21. Light sends electromagnetic waves through water, causing many crystalline patterns and photosynthesis. Passing water through a magnetic field reorients water hardness, eliminating scaling in pipes and cooking utensils. Thoughts change the crystalline patterns of water that sends electronic waves through human and animal bodies. Good thoughts produce good results like health and happiness and bad thoughts produce bad results, such as poor health.

Clouds

22. Water attracts itself. Clouds hold billions of watts of electric energy. Each molecule of water in a cloud attracts every other molecule in the cloud. Even if all the molecules have a negative charge on them and every molecule should repel every other molecule, or every molecule in the cloud has a positive charge on them and every molecule should repel every other molecule, the molecules collect themselves in a cloud contrary to the laws of electronics. As a result, a single lightning bolt discharges billion of watts of electricity to produce life on earth.

Intelligent Design Made Water like a Complex Computer

23. Water is much more complex than simply an H2O chemical molecule. God gave water the ability to transfer knowledge from one molecule to another. God gave water the ability to support all life. All plants, animals and humans are made up mostly of water, especially the brains. God made water like a complex computer that passes knowledge throughout your body. Water can be programmed like a computer. Water has a memory, as has been confirmed in homeopathy. Each water molecule in your body causes every other molecule in your body the carry the same information throughout your body and cause your body to act accordingly. You can program the water in your body for your good by telling yourself five times, three times a day what you want it to do. The following are modifications after the book by Maxwell Maltz, Psycho-Cybernetics, 1960.

Do you want to live in heaven with God forever after you die? Tell yourself five times, three times a day that you love Jesus and Jesus loves you. Tell yourself that Jesus paid for your sins with His blood, and that your sins are forgiven because you believe in Jesus. Tell yourself five times, three times a day that Jesus is the bread of life that came down from heaven and was broken for you to give you eternal life.

Do you have low self-esteem? Tell yourself five times, three times a day, "I like myself."

Do you want to be popular and successful in life? Tell yourself five times, three times a day, “I have unconditional warm regards for all people at all times, and thoroughly enjoy my friendship with them.” God made the water in your body to act according to what you program it to do.

Do you want to be healthy? Tell yourself five times, three times a day, “I am perfectly healthy in all ways, and thoroughly enjoy my good health through Jesus Christ who strengthens me.” God made water so that it can heal you.

Do you want to be successful in business, science, politics, music or whatever interests you have? Tell yourself three times, five times day, “I am completely successful in all that I undertake to do.”

Do you want to have a good memory? Tell yourself five times, three times a day, “I have excellent memory, and remember all things.”

God made water with unique properties to act like a computer so that you can program it for your good to act in your body for whatever you want to accomplish in life. This is the reason why there is life on earth. Water has the ability to produce life and to cause things to grow, and to cause human bodies to think and possess a living soul. Think of the lilies that are mostly water, and how they grow. They toil not, and yet they are arrayed much more beautifully than Solomon was in all his glory. Think of the fish and the cattle that are mostly water.

God, through Intelligent Design gave water much more than 23 unique properties, including the density of water and the chemical and the physical properties of water and the ability to act like a computer and the fourth dimension of water called the Exclusion Zone. See Related Links for more information.



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3 Re: The-wonders-of-water on Wed Apr 15, 2015 9:33 pm

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How are the amazing, life permitting properties of water better explained, through intentional creation, or a random lucky accident ?

The coherence of an engineered world
D. Halsmer, J. Asper2, N. Roman2 & T. Todd2

The incredible properties of water and carbonic acid

Carbonic acid is to be thanked for the constancy of the alkalinity of both blood and the oceans. The common but vital reaction of carbonic acid is fairly simple (CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3 -). This reaction can go either direction, forming a stable system. It acts as a great buffer against a fluctuating acidity by allowing excess acid to automatically be carried by the blood and then out of the lungs.  The chemist cannot rival its efficiency . Michael Denton describes it as a “solution of breathtaking elegance and parsimony” . The remarkable properties of water are numerous. Its very high specific heat maintains relatively stable temperatures both in oceans and organisms. As a liquid, its thermal conductivity is four times any other common liquid, which makes it possible for cells to efficiently distribute heat. On the other hand, ice has a low thermal conductivity, making it a good thermal shield in high latitudes A latent heat of fusion only surpassed by that of ammonia tends to keep water in liquid form and creates a natural thermostat at 0°C. Likewise, the highest latent heat of vaporization of any substance – more than five times the energy required to heat the same amount of water from 0°C to 100°C – allows water vapor to store large amounts of heat in the atmosphere. This very high latent heat of vaporization is also vital biologically because at body temperature or above, the only way for a person to dissipate heat is to sweat it off .

Water’s remarkable capabilities are  not only thermal.

A high vapor tension allows air to hold more moisture, which enables precipitation. Water’s great surface tension is necessary for good capillary effect for tall plants, and it
allows soil to hold more water. Water’s low viscosity makes it possible for blood to flow through small capillaries. A very well-documented anomaly is that water expands into the solid state, which keeps ice on the surface of the oceans instead of accumulating on the ocean floor. Possibly the most important trait of water is its unrivaled solvency abilities, which let it transport great amounts of minerals to immobile organisms and also hold all of the contents of blood. It is also only mildly reactive, which keeps it from harmfully reacting as it dissolves substances. Recent research has gone into understanding how water acts as an efficient lubricator in many biological systems from snails to human digestion. By itself, water is not very effective in this role, but it works well with certain additives, such as some glycoproteins . The sum of these traits makes water an ideal
medium for life. Literally every property of water is suited for supporting life. It is no wonder why liquid water is the first requirement in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. All of these traits are contained in a simple molecule of only three atoms.

One of the most difficult tasks for an engineer is to design for multiple criteria at
once.


As engineering professor Henry Petroski notes, “All design involves conflicting objectives and hence compromise, and the best designs will always be those that come up with the best compromise” . Satisfying all of these criteria in one simple design is an engineering marvel. Also, the design process goes very deep, since many characteristics would necessarily be changed if one were to alter fundamental physical properties such as the strong nuclear force or the size of the electron. Paul Davies comments on the subject:
It happens that water combines in one substance several key qualities (thermal, mechanical, chemical) that life exploits and indeed that are indispensable to life as we know it. What are we to make of this? Is it just a lucky fluke that the same stuff that has an anomalous expansion property when it freezes (enabling ice to float) also has superlative solvent properties or unusually high surface tension and/or efficient tectonic lubrication qualities, for example? The molecular shape of water explains most of its incredible thermal properties. The molecule is a triangle at a 104°30’ angle. The electron of each hydrogen atom is pulled towards the oxygen atom, exposing the positive proton nucleus of the hydrogen atoms a bit. The nucleus of the oxygen atom is overcompensated, leaving its exposed shoulder with a negative charge. The water molecules are therefore able to become weakly coupled and re-coupled (a hydrogen bond). The lower density of ice is because the crystal structure opens up and the coupling effect is reduced in ice. hydrogen bonds play other vital roles in organisms. For example, the strands of DNA are joined by hydrogen bonds, which are strong enough to hold together but weak enough to unzip when it is time for replication, a very beautiful design .

Physicists discover new quantum state of water

http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2011/feb/04/physicists-discover-new-quantum-state-of-water

"I think that the quantum mechanics of protons in water has been playing a role in the development of cellular life all along but we never noticed before," he says.


Hydrogen, oxygen and carbon

Conveniently, the three elements in water and carbonic acid are the same ones which have the ability to create compounds with the incredible amount of variety and complexity necessary for life. Henderson comments on this: That the very elements which make up water and carbonic acid, and apparently they alone, should posses this wonderful property [complexity, variety] is, when taken together with the physical properties of water and carbonic acid and their place in cosmic evolution as constituents of the atmosphere, a fact which cannot lightly be set aside.  Hydrogen, oxygen and carbon rank one, three and four in prevalence in the universe (helium is the other). The explanation has to do with fusion
within stars. Early reactions start with hydrogen atoms and then produce deuterium (mass 2), tritium (mass 3), and alpha particles (mass 4), but no stable mass 5 exists. This limits the creation of heavy elements and was considered one of “God’s mistakes” until further investigation. In actuality, the lack of a stable mass 5 necessitates bigger jumps of four which lead to carbon (mass 12) and oxygen (mass 16). Otherwise, the reactions would have climbed right up the periodic table in mass steps of one (until iron, which is the cutoff above which fusion requires energy rather than creating it). The process would have left oxygen and carbon no more abundant than any other element. One might wonder why Beryllium (mass 8 ) is not more prevalent. This is because it too readily reacts with helium to create carbon. Stability is an important consideration here, and it is also a very important feature of most engineered systems. Energy resonance levels are the major determinant of stability. Resonance here refers to how beryllium and helium have a combined  energy almost exactly equal to an excited carbon atom. Cosmologist Fred Hoyle actually predicted carbon’s resonance level based solely on the anthropic assumption that it was necessary in large quantities for life. He was later proven correct. If the resonance level of carbon was 4% lower, essentially no carbon would form. If it was 0.5% higher, almost all carbon would react and become oxygen .

An interesting engineering analogy here would be LEGOs®. The reason why LEGOs are so useful and fun is because they stay together when assembled into an object. On the other hand, they also can be broken down and reassembled when desired. In order to make this possible, engineers in Denmark had to carefully design the perfect interference fit. If the fit is too tight, the pieces will never attach or never come apart, while if it is too loose, they will never stay together. LEGOs are actually manufactured to a tolerance of 2 μm. In thesame way, if the “fit” of carbon had been 4% “tighter,” it would have rarely ever formed, and if it had been 0.5% “looser,” it would have rarely stayed together. Though he remained agnostic, Hoyle’s prediction of carbon’s resonance level must have surprised even him, because it led to some interesting quotes: A commonsense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature.  And also:
I do not believe that any scientist who examined the evidence would fail to draw the inference that the laws of nuclear physics have been deliberately designed with regard to the consequences they produce inside the stars.

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4 Re: The-wonders-of-water on Wed Jul 29, 2015 4:51 am

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http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150316/ncomms7490/full/ncomms7490.html



we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of ​water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity.

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5 Re: The-wonders-of-water on Tue Jun 06, 2017 12:51 pm

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Water

Water is the matrix in which life exists. Most living organisms have a lot of water in them. Humans are over 70% water.
Water has the following unique properties, which make it wonderful for life:

  • high heat capacity


  • good insulation ability when solid, but not so good as a liquid


  • better conductor of heat than many other liquids (by a factor of 4)


  • ability to float when it freezes and to expand when cooled below 4° C and also upon freezing


  • almost universal solvent


  • low viscosity


  • density of 1 kg/m3


  • ability to absorb a lot of heat when it evaporates (latent heat of evaporation)


  • ability to absorb a lot of heat when solid water melts (latent heat of freezing)


  • transparency to visible light


  • high surface tension


  • proton conductance




Proton conductance is unique to water and important in the vital life processes photosynthesis and phosphorylation.
The surface tension of water allows capillary action to occur, enabling water to carry nutrients up the trunks of tall trees to their leaves. Also, surface tension enables water to go deep into cracks in rocks where another unique property of water, expansion upon freezing, weathers the rock and helps create soil.
The low viscosity of water makes blood circulation and molecular movement inside a cell much easier; yet, if it were much lower, the fragile cellular mechanisms would be weakened.
Another property of water, its awesome ability as a solvent, dissolves the minerals out of rocks, which then can be absorbed by plant roots. Most rocks of earth’s crust consist largely of silicates, which are perfect for creating soil; soil, of course, is useful for plant life (and ultimately for animals and humans, too).
Another property of water protects plants from freezing— the insulating properties of solid water: frost, ice, and 3 snow. But, the thermal conductivity of liquid water is not a problem. It is a benefit, serving a useful purpose for life! The relatively high thermal conductivity of water allows it to transfer heat from the core of the body to the surface, where evaporation cools the organism.
Water’s high latent heat of evaporation, the amount of heat released when water evaporates, is one reason perspiration cools so well.
Another property of water helps keep organisms cool: the high heat capacity of water, that is, the ability of water to absorb large amounts of heat without changing temperature. This helps stabilize body temperature, which is important for temperature-dependent biochemical reactions.
Another benefit of water’s high heat capacity is that it allows the oceans to moderate the weather and the climate by maintaining the temperature in a range of approximately 0–100° C, the range in which water is a liquid, making life possible on earth, unlike places like the moon.

1. http://www.tasc-creationscience.org/content/amazing-coincidences-life

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6 Re: The-wonders-of-water on Fri Jun 09, 2017 12:17 pm

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For the world to evolve life, it must, first and foremost, have expanses of liquid water.This was at first thought to require a large rocky planet with a hot core, thick atmosphere and surface oceans – a terrestrial planet.The factors that control whether ground water is liquid are the surface temperature and pressure of the planet.


1. Life in the Universe A Beginner’s Guide, page 60

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