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Sex, the Queen of Problems in Evolutionary Biology

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Sex, the Queen of Problems in Evolutionary Biology

Evolution or design? You will be amazed at the complexity and different systems needed to be in place for human reproduction to be possible! 1

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1685-sex-the-queen-of-problems-in-evolutionary-biology



women is born with a limited number of eggs and generally releases only one egg per cycle.
Question : without an egg release fertilisation is impossible. Therefore, would this system not have to be in place right from the beginning ?
Sperms develop only 3 to 5 degrees lower than body temperature. The scrotum expands/contracts to get further/closer from the body. This keeps the sperms at the right temperature in order that they do not die.
Question : would this system not have to be fully in place right from the beginning ? Otherwise, no sperms would be produced.
Sperms and eggs have each 23 chromosomes, while the other cells in humans have 46 chromosomes.
Question : how did evolution produce these highly specialized cells, which have only half of the number of chromosomes, than all the other cells ?
The gender of the baby is decided by the sperm. Sperms either have x , or y chromosomes. The egg is always x.xx = girl , xy = boy.
Wouldn't have both the x and the y chromosome sperm have to have been in place at the same time ? Otherwise only one gender would be produced.
To have any hope of reproduction first men would have to be able to pass semen from his body to the woman's body.
Question : wouldn't this system have to be in place right from the beginning ? Also , what intermediary system could there be ? Either the sperm was able to leave the body, or it was not.
Sperm must be able to swim. Sperm are highly specialized for the task to fertilize the egg which includes being able to swim.
Question : would sperm not need to be able to swim right from the beginning ? Without being able to swim, it could not reach the egg.
Sperm must find the egg. Even if they can swim, they have the hudge task to find the egg. Fortunately, the egg releases progesterone as a chemoattractant that points the sperm the way to the egg.
Questions : Wouldn't this system need to be in place from the beginning ? How did evolution produce sperms that can sense progesterone ? And know that they have to follow it to find  the egg ?
Sperm has the correct enzyme on the head to be able to penetrate the egg wall. When a sperm reaches the egg it releases special enzymes which break down the tougher wall of the egg. Whithout these enzymes, the egg could not fertilize the egg.
Question: wouldnt this system have to be in place from the beginning ?
Egg outer wall hardens in order another sperm not being able to penetrating the same egg. Fertilisation by more than one sperm inevitably leads to the death of the embryo. Shortly after the egg enters the sperm, the outer membrane hardens, and becomes impenetrable to an other.
Question: would this system not have to be in place right from the beginning?
Sperm and egg must fuse in order their nuclei  to become one. The nucleus of the egg fuses with the nucleus of the sperm uniting both genetic materials to become a new individual.
Question: How can evolution explain this ?
Fertilized egg must attach to the uterus wall.  The newly fertilized egg is covered in the molecule " i selectin " which enables it to stick to the uterus wall.
Question : wouldn't this molecule have to be in place right from the beginning ? Without it, the egg would not attach, and the pregnancy would end.
The placenta is a extremely complex piece of equipment.  it acts as the lung, kidney, and digestive system of the baby.
Question: how does evolution explain the placenta ? Without it, the baby would not survive. Would it not have to be there right from the beginning with all its functions in place ?
Before birth, the baby gets its oxygen from the placenta. Its lungs are in a collapsed state, and receive little blood supply. Most of the blood destined for the lungs is diverted through a hole between the top chambers of the heart. All of this has to change within the first moments of birth. Sensors in the baby's skin and within its blood vessels detect temperature drops and rising CO2 level which makes the baby take its first breath.
The babys lungs are coated in a fluid called surfactant which significantly reduces the force needed to inflate the lungs. The inflated lungs reduce the pressure in the heart which in turn closes the hole in the heart which in turn sends more blood to the lungs.
Questions : Wouldnt the sensors and programming to stimulate the first breath not had to have been there right from the beginning ?
Conclusion : The human reproductive process is a complicated process of systems that could not have come about gradually.
Evolution, or design ? definitively, design.


Human reproduction proves design not evolution

Human reproduction is made possible by an incredible system of systems. The theory of evolution proposes that things evolve gradually over time. Please bear that in mind when you read about the marvellous human reproductive system.
The following is a list of the systems involved.


Asexual to sexual reproduction


The evolution from asexual to sexual is not a favorite topic of discussion in most evolutionary circles, because no matter how many theories evolutionists conjure up (and there are several), they still must surmount the enormous hurdle of explaining the origin of the first fully functional female and the first fully functional male necessary to begin the process.
Exactly how did we arrive at two separate genders (at the same time) each with its own physiology?

Female egg release system


Woman is born with a limited number of eggs and generally only releases one egg per cycle.
If this system wasn’t in place from the beginning then no eggs would be released making fertilization impossible.

Sperm development temperature


Sperm only develop in temperatures 3 – 5 degrees fahrenheit lower than the body. The scrotum has a built in thermostat. If the temperature is too cold or too hot the scrotum contracts/expands to get closer/further from the body. This keeps the sperm at the correct temperature so that they don’t die.
This system has to have been in place from the beginning or all the sperm would die?

Sperm and egg have only 23 single chromosomes.


Unlike every cell of the human body, which have 46 chromosomes (in 23 pairs), these cells have only 23 (not in pairs).
How did it come to be that these cells only have 23 chromosomes?

Sperm determines whether it is a girl or a boy.


The egg is always x chromosome. The sperm can be either x or y chromosome. xx = girl, xy = boy.
If sperm were only x or only y then the species would quickly die out since only one gender would be produced. Both types of sperm had to be there from the beginning?

Man being able to pass semen out of his body.


Wouldn’t this system need to be in place from the start? Otherwise the sperm could not reach the egg?

Sperm must be able to swim.


The sperm are highly specialized for the task of fertilizing an egg.
If sperm couldn’t swim from the beginning then they couldn’t reach the egg to fertilize it. Quite lucky that sperm can swim aren’t we?

Cervical mucus for sperm transport


The importance of normal Cervical Mucus in natural reproduction is widely recognised. For most of a woman’s cycle the Cervical Mucus is a thick gel and hostile to sperm, with a low pH and a structure that stops sperm transport by the presence of closely spaced microfibers. During ovulation, however, the Cervical Mucus becomes more alkaline (higher pH), and more fluid. This allows the sperm to swim through the mucus and into the uterus.
If this cervical mucus was not in place from the start then sperm could not reach the egg?

Semen is alkaline


The normal environment of the vagina is a hostile one for sperm, as it is very acidic and patrolled by immune cells. The seminal plasma attempts to compensate for this hostile environment.
If the seminal fluids were not alkaline then the sperm would die before reaching the egg

Sperm needs to find the egg.


Cells surrounding the egg release progesterone as a “chemoattractant” that “points the sperm the way to the egg”.
The hormone also triggers a last-gasp jolt of hyperactivity in the sperm when they are close to the egg, where progesterone is highly concentrated.
“Hyperactive sperm beat their tails forcefully like a whiplash, and appear to mobilise their last reserves of strength – like marathon runners in the home stretch,”.
This final burst of energy helps the sperm penetrate the egg.
How would sperm evolve to know to swim towards the female hormones?

Sperm has correct enzyme on head that can penetrate egg wall.


The first sperm that reaches the egg releases a special enzyme to eat through the outer layer (zona pellucid) of the egg.
There are over 75,000 known enzymes in nature. Lucky that the sperm has the right one!

Egg outer wall hardens to prevent other sperm fertilizing the same egg.


Polyspermy (more than one sperm entering the egg) is almost always fatal for the egg. To prevent this, several changes to the egg’s cell membranes renders them impenetrable shortly after the first sperm enters the egg.
Shields up! Fertilization by more than one sperm ‘polyspermy’ inevitably leads to the death of the embryo. Is it luck that this system is in place?

Sperm and egg must fuse so that their nuclei become one.


The nucleus of the sperm fuses with the nucleus of the egg, uniting both genetic materials together to form a brand new individual.
What are the chances of this? It’s truly a miracle.

Fertilized egg must attach to the uterus wall.


Egg is covered in a molecule called L-selectin which binds to the carbohydrates in the uterus wall!
What are the chances that the egg would be covered in the right molecule to help it attach to the uterus?

The amazing placenta


The placenta is an extremely complex piece of biological equipment. It allows the mother’s blood and the baby’s to come into very close contact – but without ever mixing. This enables blood to pass across nutrients and oxygen to the baby, and waste products like carbon dioxide to go back from baby to mother. It acts as the lung, kidney and digestive system for the baby.
The placenta continues to produce progesterone which stabilises conditions inside the uterus until birth. This is important because among other things: stimulates the growth of breast tissue, prevents lactation until after birth, strengthens the mucus plug covering the cervix to prevent infection, stops the uterus from contracting.
This amazing selfless organ is vital… without it there would be no baby. It had to be there from the beginning?

Baby’s first breath


Before birth the baby is surrounded by amniotic fluid and get’s it’s oxygen from the placenta. The baby has lungs but they are in a collapsed state and receive little blood supply. Most of the blood destined for the lungs is diverted through a hole between the top chambers of the heart. All this has to change within the first few moments after birth. Sensors on the baby’s skin and within blood vessels detect temperature drops and rising carbon dioxide levels… which makes the baby takes its first breath. The lungs are coated with a special fluid called ‘surfactant’ which significantly reduces the force needed to inflate the lungs. The inflated lungs reduces the pressure in the heart which in turn closes the hole between the top two chambers which in turn sends more blood supply to the lungs!
Wouldn’t the sensors and programming to stimulate the first breath had to have been there from the beginning? Without the surfactant easing the tension in the lungs the baby would not be able to breath.. so that had to be there from the beginning too?

Mother produces milk


Amazingly, a mother’s breast milk contains everything that her baby needs including: vitamins, mineral, digestive enzymes, hormones and antibodies that help the baby fight infections. It is also only produced after childbirth and is on tap for the child when it wants it. Proponents of evolution have come up with some just so stories for the evolution of breastfeeding but no hard evidence. It is quite amazing that the mother produces food directly from her own body.

Can evolution account for this system of systems?


The human reproductive system is a highly advanced process which cannot have come about gradually. Either the sperm can follow the female hormones to the egg or they cannot. Either the sperm can penetrate the egg wall or it cannot.
If you believe that all these parts of the system can come into being at the same time by chance then you are looking at a virtually impossible odds of 1 in 2.25 sextillion and that is just with a 1 in 10 for most parts of the process!

http://nathanielclaiborne.com/the-most-uncomfortable-argument-against-common-ancestry/

The Survival Value of Half A Genital

In order for common ancestry to be true, we must all share a single common ancestor. In order for that to be true, at some point genetic reproduction would have to have evolved from being purely asexual to also including coitus (to use Sheldon Cooper’s preferred term). Keep in mind that this had to happen gradually. And not just gradually, but in two separate streams (so to speak). One set of genes in a population of organisms would need to focus on gradually perfecting the vagina, while another focuses on the penis. Somehow, this genetic adaptation needs to provide survival value to continue developing.

Supposing it does, once we have organisms with fully formed genitals, they need to find each other. And then, well, they need to get it on (or at least fumble around enough to exchange fluids). Now, there is no evidence for exactly how this took place, much less evidence that it did in fact take place. Given Coyne’s two statements in the beginning of this post, I am inclined to deny common ancestry on the basis of a comically incomplete amount of evidence. Reproduction evolving from asexual to sexual doesn’t even make sense in an evolutionary paradigm as Coyne himself points out:

Biologists still question whether any known advantage outweighs the twofold cost of sex (156).

If you see how the reasoning works you’ll understand this isn’t particularly a problem for someone already committed to evolution in its totality. Because we all share a common ancestor, at some point reproduction had to evolve into the sexual realm, and because that has clearly happened, it must offer some kind of genetic advantage even if we don’t know what it is. I don’t know about you, but that sounds like faith in the absence of evidence to me.

I can see though that if one is an evolutionist and a naturalist, there really isn’t another option. You have to believe in common ancestry because it’s part of the overall theory. Likewise, you have to believe that sexual reproduction evolved gradually even if there is no evidence that this happened because it is the only way to link lower and higher forms of life to a single spontaneous evolution of non-life to life.
The Sex Life of Fossils

What applies to the issue of common ancestry in general also applies to human-primate relations in particular. While we can find fossils of primates that no longer exist, unless we can establish reproductive connections it would be hard to both distinguish different species and put them in a proper progression.

In other words, if a species is a “reproductively isolated” population or community of organisms, how can we know who these hominid fossils were shagging? While we can determine the sex of a fossil, from I’ve read it seems like it would hard to determine the sex life of a fossil, but that’s precisely what you would need to know in order to prove it is a separate species from another similar fossil find. If they weren’t “reproductively isolated” then they might not be separate species. You may be able to establish “reproductive compatibility” (like the fact we can mate tigers and lions) but that doesn’t validate that pre-historic coitus was actually taking place.

In short, I think we would need to know quite a bit more about who these hominid fossils where shacking up with before we can really establish firm boundaries between species. We also need this kind of information to better understand the sequence of species. Until there is more clear evidence on both of these fronts, I’m inclined to deny common ancestry both in the larger sense (all of life goes back to a single organism) and in the particular sense of man’s relation to the apes. This latter sense is what unnecessarily leads scientifically naive people to rethink the creation of man in Genesis (e.g. Peter Enns’ The Evolution of Adam). If you’re able to look at the available scientific evidence with a philosopher’s eye however, this kind of revisionism is unnecessary. But who knows, one day we may have all the intimate sexual details we need to fill in the blanks.

http://www.evolutionnews.org/2011/07/spinning_fanciful_tales_about_048281.html

http://crev.info/2014/11/sex-cells/

http://www.conservapedia.com/Counterexamples_to_Evolution

For evolution to be true, every male dog, cat, horse, elephant, giraffe, fish and bird had to have coincidentally evolved with a female alongside it (over billions of years) with fully evolved compatible reproductive parts and a desire to mate, otherwise the species couldn't keep going.

http://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2014/07/07/how-did-sex-start/

Most of the single-celled organisms in the world, like bacteria, reproduce asexually by making copies of themselves. So how did sex come to rule the animal kingdom? Scientists have been trying to figure out the origin of sex for hundreds of years, without much luck.

Asexual reproduction is more convenient and requires less effort: there’s no search for a partner and you get to pass all your genes along, from the U.K.’s National History Museum:

In many ways asexual reproduction is the better evolutionary strategy: only one parent is needed and all of their genes are passed on to the next generation.  All bacteria, most plants and even some animals reproduce asexually at least some of the time.
Sex is less efficient. Finding a mate can take time and energy, and any gametes that aren’t fertilised go to waste. Plus, each parent only passes half of its genes to the offspring.

One of the many problems with the so-called "common ancestor" fantasy is that gender-differentiation could not possibly have evolved or developed gradually, from a creature that was not gender-differentiated, as the darwinist claims. This is because reproduction of gender-differentiated offspring is an "all-or-none" scenario. Gender differentiation must necessarily have manifested 100% complete, with both genders and all of their respective organs and behaviors fully represented, or it could have never manifested at all. Such simultaneous and complete manifestation of two different genders -- along with their matching yet differentiated sexual organs as well as their matching yet differentiated sexual behaviors -- would necessarily require an immense amount of planning and organization, from an extremely powerful and extremely intelligent designer.

1. http://goddidit.org/human-reproduction/



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http://www.creationtoday.org/creationist-challenge/

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1685-sex-the-queen-of-problems-in-evolutionary-biology

Spontaneous reproduction

What are the odds that, of the millions of species of animals, birds, fish and insects, a male of each species developed at the same time and in the same place as a female of the same species, so that the species could propagate? Why are there two sexes anyhow? This is not foreordained in the evolutionary framework. Is there some sort of plan here? If the first generation of mating species didn’t have parents, how did the mating pair get to that point? Isn’t evolution supposed to progress when an offspring of a mating pair has a beneficial mutation?

Conclusion: No parents, no evolution. A species would have to jump from a primitive form to a fully developed male and female, each with the ability and instinct to mate.



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. In his book, The Masterpiece of Nature: The Evolution of Genetics and Sexuality, Graham Bell admitted that the whole problem of sexual reproduction “represents the most important challenge to the modern theory of evolution” (1982, book jacket). He then went on to describe the dilemma in the following manner:

Sex is the queen of problems in evolutionary biology. Perhaps no other natural phenomenon has aroused so much interest; certainly none has sowed as much confusion. The insights of Darwin and Mendel, which have illuminated so many mysteries, have so far failed to shed more than a dim and wavering light on the central mystery of sexuality, emphasizing its obscurity by its very isolation (p. 19, emp. added).

The same year that Bell published his book, evolutionist Philip Kitcher noted: “Despite some ingenious suggestions by orthodox Darwinians, there is no convincing Darwinian history for the emergence of sexual reproduction” (1982, p. 54). Evolutionists since have freely admitted that the origin of gender and sexual reproduction still remains one of the most difficult problems in biology (see, for example, Maynard-Smith, 1986, p. 35). In his 2001 book, The Cooperative Gene, evolutionist Mark Ridley wrote (under the chapter title of “The Ultimate Existential Absurdity”): “Evolutionary biologists are much teased for their obsession with why sex exists. People like to ask, in an amused way, ‘isn’t it obvious?’ Joking apart, it is far from obvious…. Sex is a puzzle that has not yet been solved; no one knows why it exists”(pp. 108,111, emp. added). In an article in Bioscience on “How Did Sex Come About?,” Julie Schecter remarked:

Sir John Maddox, who served for over twentyfive years as the editor of Nature, the prestigious journal pub-lished by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (and who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 for his “multiple contributions to science”), authored an amazing book titled What Remains to be Discovered in which he ad-dressed the topic of the origin of sex, and stated forthrightly:Sex is ubiquitous…. Yet sex remains a mystery to researchers, to say nothing of the rest of the population. Why sex? At first blush, its disadvantages seem to outweigh its benefits. After all, a parent that reproduces sexually gives only onehalf its genes to its offspring, whereas an organism that reproduces by dividing passes on all its genes. Sex also takes much longer and requires more energy than simple division. Why did a process so blatantly unprofitable to its earliest practitioners become so widespread? (1984, 34: 680).

five years as the editor of Nature, the prestigious journal pub-lished by the British Association for the Advancement of Sci-ence (and who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 for his “multiple contributions to science”), authored an amaz-ing book titled What Remains to be Discovered in which he ad-dressed the topic of the origin of sex, and stated forthrightly:

The overriding question is when (and then how) sexual reproduction itself evolved. Despite decades of speculation, we do not know. The difficulty is that sexual reproduction creates complexity of the genome and the need for a separate mechanism for producing gametes. The metabolic cost of maintaining this system is huge, as is that of providing the organs specialized for sexual reproduction (the uterus of mammalian females, for example). What are the offsetting benefits? The advantages of sexual reproduction are not obvious (1998, p. 252, parenthetical items in orig., emp. added).

The fact that the advantages of sex are “not obvious” is well known (though perhaps not often discussed) within the hallowed halls of academia. J.C. Crow lamented:

Sexual reproduction seems like a lot of baggage to carry along if it is functionless. Evolutionary conservatism perpetuates relics, but does it do so on such a grand scale as this?… It is difficult to see how a process as elaborate, ubiquitous, and expensive as sexual reproduction has been maintained without serving some important purpose of its own (1988, p. 60).

What is that “purpose”? And how can evolution via natu-ral selection explain it? Would “Nature” (notice the capital “N”) “select for” sexual reproduction? As it turns out, the com-mon “survival of the fittest” mentality cannot begin to explain the high cost of first evolving, and then maintaining, the sex-ual apparatus. Sexual reproduction requires organisms to first produce, and then maintain, gametes (reproductive cells—i.e., sperm and eggs). Additionally, various kinds of incompatibil-ity factors (like the blood Rh factor between mother and child

can pass along addition-al “costs” (some of which can be life threatening) that are inherent in this “expensive” means of re-production. In sexual or-ganisms, problems also can arise in regard to tis-sue rejection between the mother and the newly formed embryo.

The human immune system

is vigilant in identifying foreign tissue (such as an embryo that carries half of the male’s genetic information), yet evolution-ists contend that the human reproductive system has “selectively evolved” this “elaborate, ubiquitous, and expensive” method of reproduction. In trying to reconcile the logic behind what causes such things to occur via naturalistic evolution, vitalist philosopher Arthur Koestler observed:

Once upon a time it all looked so simple. Nature regarded the fit with the carrot of survival and punished the unfit with the stick of extinction. The trouble only started when it came to defining “fitness.” …Thus natural selection looks after the survival and reproduction of the fittest, and the fittest are those which have the highest rate of reproduction—we are caught in a circular argument which completely begs the question of what makes evolution evolve? (1978, p. 170).

The question of “what makes evolution evolve” is especially critical when it comes to the origin of sex and sexual reproduction. As Dr. Maddox went on to say: “Much more must be learned of the course of evolution before it is known how (rather than why) sexual reproduction evolved…. That task will require intricate work by future generations of biologists” (pp. 253,254, parenthetical item in orig.). It is our contention, based on the evidence at hand, that the intricacy, complexity, and informational content associated with sexual reproduction demand the conclusion that sex is neither a “historical accident” resulting in evolutionary baggage nor a product of organic evolution itself, but rather is the product of an intelligent Creator.

FROM ASEXUAL TO SEXUAL REPRODUCTION—THE ORIGIN OF SEX

Many single-celled organisms reproduce asexually. If we all descended from these singlecelled creatures, as Margulis and Sagan have suggested, then why was the simple-yet-effi-cient method of asexual reproduction set aside in favor of sexual reproduction?

In an intriguing article titled “The Enigma of Sex and Evolution,” biologist Jerry Bergman wrote:

Evolution requires sexual reproduction to have evolved from asexual reproduction via natural selection…. The lack of evidence of any biological systems that can bridge the chasm between sexual and asexual reproduction either today or in the past is also a major difficulty with evolution theory. Actually, the complete lack of any transitional forms for all sexual traits is a huge major fossil gap. The same problem also exists here as with any transitional form: structures are useless or worse until they are at least marginally functional. This is especially true regarding reproduction, and would result in rapid extinction if the features produced by mutations were less than fully functional (1996, 33: 230, emp. in orig.).

Dobzhansky and his co-authors commented on this “enigma” in their book, Evolution:

With respect to the origin of sexual reproduction, two challenging questions present themselves. First, in what kinds of organisms did sex first arise? And sec-ond, what was the adaptive advantage that caused sexual reproduction to become predominant in higher or-ganisms? (1977, p. 391)

Asexual reproduction is the formation of new individuals from cells of only one parent, without gamete formation or fertilization by another member of the species. Asexual reproduction thus does not require one egg-producing parent and one sperm-producing parent. A single parent is all that is required. In addressing this point, evolutionist George C. Williams admitted that the “immediate advantage of asexual reproduction is generally conceded by all those who have seriously concerned themselves with the problem” (1977, p. Cool. In fact, he went on to note that

“the masculine-feminine contrast is a prima facie difficulty for evolutionary theory” (p. 124).

Sporulation (spore formation) is one method of asexual reproduction among protozoa and certain plants. A spore is a reproductive cell that produces a new organism without fertilization. In some lower forms of animals (e.g., hydra), and in yeasts, budding is a common form of asexual repro-duction as a small protuberance on the surface of the parent cell increases in size until a wall forms to separate the new in-dividual (the bud) from the parent. Regeneration is another specialized form of asexual reproduction that allows some organisms (e.g. starfish and salamanders) to replace injured or lost parts. All of these processes require only one “parent,” and work quite well in stable environments.
As they have struggled to explain the existence of sexual reproduction in nature, evolutionists have suggested four dif-ferent (and sometimes contradictory) theories, known in the literature as: (1) the Lottery Principle; (2) the Tangled Bank Hy-pothesis;(3)the Red Queen Hypothesis; and (4) theDNARe-pair Hypothesis. We would like to discuss each briefly.

In his 2001 book, Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea, Carl Zimmer admitted:

Sex is not only unnecessary, but it ought to be a recipe for evolutionary disaster. For one thing, it is an inefficient way to reproduce…. And sex carries other costs as well…. By all rights, any group of animals that evolves sexual reproduction should be promptly outcompeted by nonsexual ones. And yet sex reigns.
...Why is sex a success, despite all its disadvantages? (pp. 230,231, emp. added).


http://pages.towson.edu/scully/sex.html

"Sex is the queen of problems in evolutionary biology.
Perhaps no other natural phenomenon has aroused so much interest;
certainly none has sowed so much confusion."
- Graham Bell, 1982



http://genetics.thetech.org/original_news/news143

Solving the Sex Problem in Evolution

Sex May be More Important for Stability than Change

July 15, 2011

Explaining the evolution of sex has been a problem for a very long time. Most ideas have focused on the advantages to populations. For example, sex causes a genetic mixing which is good for a species' survival in a changing environment.

Unfortunately evolution can't work on populations - it has to have advantages for the individual as well. This is especially true for sex given its high cost to the individual (the existence of males, sexually transmitted diseases, etc.).

http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1542981?uid=4&sid=21104421048963


http://www.apologeticspress.org/apPubPage.aspx?pub=1&issue=535

http://crev.info/2014/06/sperm-cells-gain-respect/

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http://www.trueorigin.org/sex01.asp

Abstract

The origin and maintenance of sex and recombination is not easily explained by natural selection. Evolutionary biology is unable to reveal why animals would abandon asexual reproduction in favor of more costly and inefficient sexual reproduction. Exactly how did we arrive at two separate genders-each with its own physiology? If, as evolutionists have argued, there is a materialistic answer for everything, then the question should be answered: Why sex? Is sex the product of a historical accident or the product of an intelligent Creator? The current article reviews some of the current theories for why sexual reproduction exists today. Yet, as these theories valiantly attempt to explain why sex exists now, they do not explain the origin of sex. We suggest that there is no naturalistic explanation that can account for the origin and maintenance of sex.

Introduction

Biology texts illustrate amoebas evolving into intermediate organisms, which then give rise to amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and, eventually, humans. Yet, we never learn exactly when or how independent male and female sexes originated. Somewhere along this evolutionary path, both males and females were required in order to ensure the procreation that was necessary to further the existence of a particular species. But how do evolutionists explain this? When pressed to answer questions such as, “Where did males and females actually come from?,” “What is the evolutionary origin of sex?,” evolutionists become silent. How could nature evolve a female member of a species that produces eggs and is internally equipped to nourish a growing embryo, while at the same time evolving a male member that produces motile sperm cells? And, further, how is it that these gametes (eggs and sperm) conveniently “evolved” so that they each contain half the normal chromosome number of somatic (body) cells? [Somatic cells reproduce via the process of mitosis, which maintains the species’ standard chromosome number; gametes are produced via the process of meiosis, which halves that number. We will have more to say about both processes later.]

The evolution of sex (and its accompanying reproductive capability) is not a favorite topic of discussion in most evolutionary circles, because no matter how many theories evolutionists conjure up (and there are several), they still must surmount the enormous hurdle of explaining the origin of the first fully functional female and the first fully functional male necessary to begin the process. In his book, The Masterpiece of Nature: The Evolution of Genetics and Sexuality, Graham Bell described the dilemma in the following manner:

‘Sex is the queen of problems in evolutionary biology. Perhaps no other natural phenomenon has aroused so much interest; certainly none has sowed as much confusion. The insights of Darwin and Mendel, which have illuminated so many mysteries, have so far failed to shed more than a dim and wavering light on the central mystery of sexuality, emphasizing its obscurity by its very isolation.’[1]
The same year that Bell released his book, well-known evolutionist Philip Kitcher noted: “Despite some ingenious suggestions by orthodox Darwinians, there is no convincing Darwinian history for the emergence of sexual reproduction.”[2] Evolutionists since have freely admitted that the origin of gender and sexual reproduction still remains one of the most difficult problems in biology (see, for example, Maynard-Smith, 1986, p. 35). In his 2001 book, The Cooperative Gene, evolutionist Mark Ridley wrote (under the chapter title of “The Ultimate Existential Absurdity”):

‘Evolutionary biologists are much teased for their obsession with why sex exists. People like to ask, in an amused way, “isn’t it obvious?” Joking apart, it is far from obvious.... Sex is a puzzle that has not yet been solved; no one knows why it exists’[3] [emp. added].
In an article in Bioscience on “How Did Sex Come About?,” Julie Schecter remarked:

‘Sex is ubiquitous.... Yet sex remains a mystery to researchers, to say nothing of the rest of the population. Why sex? At first blush, its disadvantages seem to outweigh its benefits. After all, a parent that reproduces sexually gives only one-half its genes to its offspring, whereas an organism that reproduces by dividing passes on all its genes. Sex also takes much longer and requires more energy than simple division. Why did a process so blatantly unprofitable to its earliest practitioners become so widespread?’[4]
This “mystery” of sex deserves serious consideration in light of its “widespread” prevalence today.

“Intellectual Mischief and Confusion”
—or Intelligent Design?

Evolutionists freely admit that the origin of the sexual process remains one of the most difficult problems in biology.[5] Lynn Marguilis and Dorion Sagan have proposed a simple solution by suggesting that Mendelian inheritance and sex were a historical accident—i.e. a kind of “accidental holdover” from the era of single-celled organisms. They claim that the maintenance of sex is therefore a “nonscientific” question that “leads to intellectual mischief and confusion.”[6] This implies, however, that sex is useless, and that it has been retained through the years merely by accident. Yet even evolutionists realize the ubiquity and complexity of sexual reproduction. Niles Eldridge, a staunch evolutionist from the American Museum of Natural History, has declared: “Sex occurs in all major groups of life.”[7]

But why is this the case? Evolutionists have practically been forced to concede that there must be “some advantage” to a system as physiologically and energetically complex as sex-as Mark Ridley admitted when he wrote: “...[I]t is highly likely that sex has some advantage, and that the advantage is big. Sex would not have evolved, and been retained, unless it had some advantage”[8] (emp. added). Yet finding and explaining that advantage seems to have eluded our evolutionary colleagues. Sir John Maddox, who served for over twenty-five years as the distinguished editor of Nature, the prestigious journal published by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (and who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 for “multiple contributions to science”), authored an amazing book titled What Remains to be Discovered in which he addressed the topic of the origin of sex, and stated forthrightly:

‘The overriding question is when (and then how) sexual reproduction itself evolved. Despite decades of speculation, we do not know. The difficulty is that sexual reproduction creates complexity of the genome and the need for a separate mechanism for producing gametes. The metabolic cost of maintaining this system is huge, as is that of providing the organs specialized for sexual reproduction (the uterus of mammalian females, for example). What are the offsetting benefits? The advantages of sexual reproduction are not obvious’[9] [emp. added, parenthetical item in orig.].

Male Sperm Cell Attempting to Penetrate Female Egg
The fact that the advantages of sex “are not obvious” is well known (though perhaps not often discussed) within academia. J.F. Crow lamented:

‘Sexual reproduction seems like a lot of baggage to carry along if it is functionless. Evolutionary conservatism perpetuates relics, but does it do so on such a grand scale as this?... It is difficult to see how a process as elaborate, ubiquitous, and expensive as sexual reproduction has been maintained without serving some important purpose of its own.’[10]
What is that “purpose”? And how can evolution (via natural selection) explain it? As it turns out, the common “survival of the fittest” mentality cannot begin to explain the high cost of first evolving, and then maintaining, the sexual apparatus. Sexual reproduction requires organisms first to produce, and then maintain, gametes (reproductive cells-i.e., sperm and eggs).

Additionally, various kinds of incompatibility factors (such as the blood Rh factor between mother and child) pass along more “costs” (some of which can be life threatening) that are automatically inherent in this “expensive” means of reproduction. In sexual organisms, problems also can arise in regard to tissue rejection between the mother and the newly formed embryo. The human immune system is vigilant in identifying foreign tissue (such as an embryo that carries half of the male’s genetic information), yet evolutionists contend that the human reproductive system has “selectively evolved” this “elaborate, ubiquitous, and expensive” method of reproduction.

It is our contention, based on the evidence, that the intricacy, complexity, and informational content associated with sexual reproduction demand the conclusion that sex is neither a “historical accident” resulting in evolutionary baggage, nor a product of organic evolution itself, but rather is the product of an intelligent Creator.

From Asexual to Sexual Reproduction
—The Origin of Sex

Many single-celled organisms reproduce asexually. If we all descended from these single-celled creatures, as Margulis and Sagan have suggested, then why was the simple-yet-efficient method of asexual reproduction set aside in favor of sexual reproduction? Dobzhansky and his co-authors commented on this ironic difficulty in their book, Evolution:

‘With respect to the origin of sexual reproduction, two challenging questions present themselves. First, in what kinds of organisms did sex first arise? And second, what was the adaptive advantage that caused sexual reproduction to become predominant in higher organisms?’[11]

Asexual reproduction through budding.
Asexual reproduction is the formation of new individuals from cells of only one parent, without gamete formation or fertilization by another member of the species. Asexual reproduction thus does not require one egg-producing parent and one sperm-producing parent. A single parent is all that is required. Sporulation (the formation of spores) is one method of asexual reproduction among protozoa and certain plants. A spore is a reproductive cell that produces a new organism without fertilization. In certain lower forms of animals (e.g., hydra), and in yeasts, budding is a common form of asexual reproduction as a small protuberance on the surface of the parent cell increases in size until a wall forms to separate the new individual (the bud) from the parent. Regeneration is another form of asexual reproduction that allows organisms (e.g. starfish and salamanders) to replace injured or lost parts.

As they have struggled to explain the existence of sexual reproduction in nature, evolutionists have suggested four different (and sometimes contradictory) theories, known in the literature as: (1) the Lottery Principle; (2) the Tangled Bank Hypothesis; (3) the Red Queen Hypothesis; and (4) the DNA Repair Hypothesis. We would like to discuss each briefly.

The Lottery Principle

The Lottery Principle was first suggested by American biologist George C. Williams in his monograph, Sex and Evolution.[12] Williams’ idea was that sexual reproduction introduced genetic variety in order to enable genes to survive in changing or novel environments. He used the lottery analogy to get across the concept that breeding asexually would be like buying a large number of tickets for a national lottery but giving them all the same number. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, would be like purchasing a small number of tickets, but giving each of them a different number.

The essential idea behind the Lottery Principle is that since sex introduces variability, organisms would have a better chance of producing offspring that will survive if they reproduce a range of types rather than merely more of the same. The point being made by those who advocate the Lottery Principle is that, in their view, asexual reproduction is poorly equipped to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions due to the fact that the offspring are exact duplicates (i.e., clones) of their parents, and thus inherently possess less genetic variation-variation that ultimately could lead to radically improved adaptability and a much greater likelihood of survival). As Carl Zimmer wrote under the title of “Evolution from Within” in his volume, Parasite Rex: “A line of clones might do well enough in a forest, but what if that forest changed over a few centuries to a prairie? Sex brought the variations that could allow organisms to survive change.”[13] Matt Ridley added:

‘...[A] sexual form of life will reproduce at only half the rate of an equivalent clonal form. The halved reproductive rate of sexual forms is probably made up for by a difference in quality: the average sexual offspring is probably twice as good as an equivalent cloned offspring’[14] [emp. added].
It would be “twice as good” or “twice as fit” of course, because it had twice the genetic endowment (having received half from each of the two parents). As Reichenbach and Anderson summarized the issue:

‘For example, why do most animals reproduce sexually rather than asexually, when asexual reproduction seems to conform best to the current theory that in natural selection the fittest are those that preserve their genes by passing them on to their progeny? One theory is that sexual reproduction provides the best defense against the rapidly reproducing, infectious species that threaten the existence of organisms. The diversity in the species that results from combining different gene pools favors the survival of those that are sexually reproduced over those that by cloning inherit repetitive genetic similarity’[15] [emp. added].
It is that “diversity in the species,” according to the principle, which helps an organism maintain its competitive edge in nature’s struggle of “survival of the fittest.” But the Lottery Principle has fallen on hard times of late. It suggests that sex would be favored by a variable environment, yet a close inspection of the global distribution of sex reveals that where environments are stable (such as in the tropics), sexual reproduction is most common. In contrast, in areas where the environment is unstable (such as at high altitudes or in small bodies or water), asexual reproduction is rife.

The Tangled Bank Hypothesis

The Tangled Bank Hypothesis suggests that sex evolved in order to prepare offspring for the complicated world around them. The “tangled bank” phraseology comes from the last paragraph of Darwin’s Origin of Species, in which he referred to a wide assortment of creatures all competing for light and food on a “tangled bank.” According to this concept, in any environment where there exists intense competition for space, food, and other resources, a premium is placed on diversification. As Zimmer described it:

‘In any environment—a tidal flat, a forest canopy, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent—the space is divided into different niches where different skills are needed for survival. A clone specialized for one niche can give birth only to offspring that can also handle the same niche. But sex shuffles the genetic deck and deals the offspring different hands. It’s basically spreading out progeny so that they’re using different resources.’[16]
The Tangled Bank Hypothesis, however, also has fallen on hard times. In his book, Evolution and Human Behavior, John Cartwright concluded:

‘Although once popular, the tangled bank hypothesis now seems to face many problems, and former adherents are falling away. The theory would predict a greater interest in sex among animals that produce lots of small offspring that compete with each other. In fact, sex is invariably associated with organisms that produce a few large offspring, whereas organisms producing small offspring frequently engage in parthenogenesis [asexual reproduction-BT/BH]. In addition, the evidence from fossils suggests that species go for vast periods of [geologic] time without changing much’[17] [emp. added].
Indeed, the evidence does suggest “that species go for vast periods of time without changing much.” Consider the following admission in light of that point. According to Margulis and Sagan, bacteria “evolved” in such a fashion as to ultimately be responsible for sexual reproduction. Yet if that is the case, why, then, have the bacteria themselves remained virtually unchanged—from an evolutionary viewpoint—for billions of years of Earth history? In his book, Evolution of Living Organisms, the eminent French zoologist, Pierre-Paul Grassé, raised this very point.

‘[B]acteria, despite their great production of intraspecific varieties, exhibit a great fidelity to their species. The bacillus Escherichia coli, whose mutants have been studied very carefully, is the best example. The reader will agree that it is surprising, to say the least, to want to prove evolution and to discover its mechanisms and then to choose as a material for this study a being which practically stabilized a billion years ago’[18] [emp. added].
Additionally, it should be noted that today we still see organisms that reproduce asexually, as well as organisms that reproduce sexually—which raises the obvious question: Why do some organisms continue to reproduce asexually, while others have “evolved” the ability to reproduce sexually? Don’t the asexual organisms ever “need” genetic variety in order to enable genes to survive in changing or novel environments (the Lottery Principle)? Don’t they ever “need” to prepare their offspring for the complicated world around them (the Tangled Bank Hypothesis)?

The Red Queen Hypothesis

The Red Queen Hypothesis was first suggested by Leigh Van Valen in an article titled “A New Evolutionary Law” in Evolutionary Theory.[19] His research suggested that the probability of organisms becoming extinct bears no relationship to how long they already may have survived. In other words, as Cartwright put it: “It is a sobering thought that the struggle for existence never gets any easier; however well adapted an animal may become, it still has the same chance of extinction as a newly formed species.”[20] Biologists came to refer to the concept as the Red Queen Hypothesis, named after the character in Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass who took Alice on a lengthy run that actually went nowhere. As the queen said to poor Alice, “Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place.” Think of it as a “genetics arms race” in which an animal constantly must run the genetic gauntlet of being able to chase its prey, elude predators, and resist infection from disease-causing organisms. In the world of the Red Queen, organisms have to run fast-just to stay still! That is to say, they constantly have to “run to try to improve” (and the development of sex would be one way of accomplishing that). Yet doing so provides no automatic guarantee of winning the struggle known as “survival of the fittest.” “Nature,” said the eminent British poet Lord Tennyson, is “red in tooth and claw.” Currently, the Red Queen Hypothesis seems to be the favorite of evolutionists worldwide in attempting to explain the reason as to the “why” of sex.

The DNA Repair Hypothesis

Think about this. Why are babies born young? Stupid question—with a self-evident answer, right? Evolutionists suggest otherwise. The point of the question is this. Our somatic (body) cells age. Yet cells of a newborn have had their clocks “set back.” Somatic cells die, but the germ line seems to be practically immortal. Why is this the case? How can “old” people produce “young” babies? In a landmark article published in 1989, Bernstein, Hopf, and Michod suggested that they had discovered the answer:

‘We argue that the lack of ageing of the germ line results mainly from repair of the genetic material by meiotic recombination during the formation of germ cells. Thus our basic hypothesis is that the primary function of sex is to repair the genetic material of the germ line.’[21]
DNA can be damaged in at least two ways. First, ionizing radiation or mutagenic chemicals can alter the genetic code. Or, second, a mutation can occur via errors during the replication process itself. Most mutations are deleterious (see Cartwright[22]). In an asexual organism, by definition, any mutation that occurs in one generation will be passed on automatically to the next. In his book, The Red Queen,[23] Matt Ridley compared it to what occurs when you photocopy a document, then photocopy the photocopy, and then photocopy that photocopy, etc. Eventually, the quality deteriorates severely. Asexual organisms, as they continue to accumulate mutations, face the unpleasant prospect of eventually becoming both unable to reproduce and unviable-neither of which would be at all helpful to evolution. [Commonly known as Muller’s Ratchet hypothesis, the mechanism operates like a downward ratchet on asexual populations with any deleterious mutation that occurs in a vertically transmitted organism.]

But sexual reproduction allows most plants and animals to create offspring with good copies of two genes via crossover and would thus, help eliminate this downward ratchet since mutations, although they might still be passed on from one generation to the next, would not necessarily be expressed in the next generation (a mutation must appear in the genes of both parents before it is expressed in the offspring). As Cartwright put it:

‘In sexually reproducing species on the other hand, some individuals will be “unlucky” and have a greater share than average of deleterious mutations in their genome, and some will be “lucky,” with a smaller share. The unlucky ones will be selected out. This in the long term has the effect of constantly weeding out harmful mutations through the death of those that bear them.... Deleterious mutations...would have devastating consequences if it were not for sexual reproduction.’[24]
But, as Cartwright went on to admit: “This theory is not without its problems and critics.”[25] One of those problems, expressed by Mark Ridley (no kin to Matt), is: “We do not know for sure that sex exists to purge bad genes.”[26] No, we certainly do not! And, in fact, evidence is beginning to mount that perhaps the DNA Repair Hypothesis is itself in need of “repair.” As Maddox noted:

‘One view is that sexual reproduction makes it easier for an evolving organism to get rid of deleterious changes. That should certainly be the case if there is more than one genetic change and if their combined effect on the fitness of the evolving organisms is greater than the sum of their individual changes acting separately. But there is no direct evidence to show that this rule is generally applicable’[27] [emp. added].
We must not overlook an important fact throughout all of this: These theories valiantly attempt to explain why sex exists now, but they do not explain the origin of sex. How, exactly, did nature accomplish the “invention” of the marvelous process we know as sex? In addressing this very issue, Maddox asked quizzically:

‘How did this process (and its complexities) evolve?... The dilemma is that natural selection cannot anticipate changes in the environment, and so arrange for the development of specialized sexual organs as a safeguard against environmental change’[28] [emp. added, parenthetical item in orig.].
Exactly our point! It is one thing to develop a theory or hypothesis to explain something that already exists, but it is entirely another to develop a theory or hypothesis to explain why that something (in this case, sex) does exist. As Mark Ridley begrudgingly admitted: “Sex is not used simply for want of an alternative. Nothing, in an evolutionary sense, forces organisms to reproduce sexually”[29] [emp. added].

Perhaps Cartwright summarized the issue well when he said: “There is perhaps no single explanation for the maintenance of sex in the face of severe cost.”[30] Since he is speaking of a strictly naturalistic explanation, we would agree wholeheartedly. But we would suggest that there is no naturalistic explanation at all for the origin or maintenance of sex.

WHY SEX?

Why, then, does sex exist? In his 2001 book, Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea, Carl Zimmer admitted:

‘Sex is not only unnecessary, but it ought to be a recipe for evolutionary disaster. For one thing, it is an inefficient way to reproduce.... And sex carries other costs as well.... By all rights, any group of animals that evolves sexual reproduction should be promptly outcompeted by nonsexual ones. And yet sex reigns... Why is sex a success, despite all its disadvantages?’[31] [emp. added].
From an evolutionary viewpoint, sex definitely is “an inefficient way to reproduce.” Think about all the sexual process entails, including the complexity involved in reproducing the information carried within the DNA. It is the complexity of this process, and the manner in which it is copied from generation to generation, which practically drove Mark Ridley to distraction in The Cooperative Gene.

‘No one in human culture would try the trick of first making two copies of a message, then breaking each into short bits at random, combining equal amounts from the two to form the version to be transmitted, and throwing the unused half away. You only have to think of sex to see how absurd it is. The “sexual” method of reading a book would be to buy two copies, rip the pages out, and make a new copy by combining half the pages from one and half from the other, tossing a coin at each page to decide which original to take the page from and which to throw away’[32] [emp. added].
Again, from an evolutionary viewpoint, sex would be considered “absurd.” But from a design viewpoint, it is nothing short of incredible!

Yet there is an even more important question than why sex exists. How did sex come to exist? Evolution is dependent on change (the English word “evolution” derives from the Latin evolvere, meaning “to unroll, to change”). Quite obviously, if everything remained the same, there would be no evolution. Evolutionists believe that the driving forces behind evolution are natural selection and genetic mutations occurring over lengthy spans of geologic time (see Peter Ward[33]). Mutations are primarily the result of mistakes that occur during DNA replication. There are three different types of mutations: beneficial, deleterious, and neutral (see Mayr[34]). Neutral mutations (which admittedly do occur) are, as their name implies, “neutral.” They do not “propel” evolution forward in any significant fashion. Deleterious mutations “will be selected against and will be eliminated in due time.”[35] That, then, leaves beneficial mutations, which, according to evolutionists, are incorporated into the species by natural selection, eventually resulting in new and different organisms.

But what does all of this have to do with the origin of sex? Evolutionists adhere to the view that the first organisms on Earth were asexual, and thus they believe that, during billions of years of Earth history, asexual organisms experienced numerous beneficial mutations that caused them to evolve into sexual organisms. But the change of a single-celled, asexual prokaryote (like a bacterium) into a multi-celled, sexual eukaryote would not be a “magical” process carried out by just a few, well-chosen beneficial mutations (as if nature had the power to “choose” anything!). In fact, quite the opposite would be true. Why so? Ernst Mayr, who undeniably ranks as the most eminent evolutionary taxonomist in the world, remarked in his book, What Evolution Is: “Any mutation that induces changes in the phenotype [the outward, physical make-up of an organism-BT/BH] will either be favored or discriminated against by natural selection.... [T]he occurrence of new beneficial mutations is rather rare”[36] [emp. added]. Beneficial mutations (viz., those that provide additional information for, and instructions to, the organism) are indeed “rather rare.” Furthermore, as evolutionists have been known to admit quite candidly, mutations that affect the phenotype almost always are harmful (see Crow[37]; Cartwright[38]). The famous Stanford University geneticist, Luigi Cavalli-Sforza (who is the head of the International Human Genome Project), addressed this fact when he wrote:

‘Evolution also results from the accumulation of new information. In the case of a biological mutation, new information is provided by an error of genetic transmission (i.e., a change in the DNA during its transmission from parent to child). Genetic mutations are spontaneous, chance changes, which are rarely beneficial, and more often have no effect, or a deleterious one’[39] [emp. added, parenthetical item in orig.].
In addressing the complete ineffectiveness of mutations as an alleged evolutionary mechanism, Dr. Grassé observed:

‘No matter how numerous they may be, mutations do not produce any kind of evolution.... The opportune appearance of mutations permitting animals and plants to meet their needs seems hard to believe. Yet the Darwinian theory is even more demanding: a single plant, a single animal would require thousands and thousands of lucky, appropriate events. Thus, miracles would become the rule: events with an infinitesimal probability could not fail to occur.... There is no law against daydreaming, but science must not indulge in it’[40] [emp. added].
Grassé is not the only prominent evolutionist to take such a view in regard to mutations as an ineffectual driving force for evolution. In a speech presented at Hobart College several years ago, the late Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould spoke out in a somewhat militant fashion about the subject when he said:

‘A mutation doesn’t produce major new raw material. You don’t make a new species by mutating the species.... That’s a common idea people have; that evolution is due to random mutations. A mutation is not the cause of evolutionary change.’[41]
All of this raises the question: If mutations are not the cause of evolutionary change, then what is?


There is more to the problem of the origin of sex, however, than “just” the fact of rare, beneficial mutations and their much-more-frequent cousins, the harmful, deleterious mutations. There is the added problem related to the two different types of cell division we mentioned earlier-mitosis and meiosis. During mitosis, all of the chromosomes are copied and passed on from the parent cell to the daughter cells. Meiosis (from the Greek meaning to split), on the other hand, occurs only in sex cells (i.e., eggs and sperm); during this type of replication, only half of the chromosomal material is copied and passed on. [For an excellent, up-to-date description of the complicated, two-part process by which meiosis occurs, see Mayr[42]] Once meiosis has taken place,

‘[t]he result is the production of completely new combinations of the parental genes, all of them uniquely different genotypes [the genetic identity of an individual that does not show as outward characteristics-BT/BH]. These, in turn, produce unique phenotypes, providing unlimited new material for the process of natural selection’[43] [emp. added].
It is those very facts—that meiosis allegedly has “evolved” the ability to halve the chromosome number (but only for gametes), and that it actually can provide “unlimited new material”—which make the meiotic process so incredible. And the critical nature of meiosis to life as we know it has been acknowledged (albeit perhaps begrudgingly) even by evolutionists. Margulis and Sagan, for example, wrote:

‘We think that meiosis became tied to two-parent sex and that meiosis as a cell process, rather than two-parent sex, was a prerequisite for evolution of many aspects of animals.... [M]eiosis seems intimately connected with complex cell and tissue differentiation. After all, animals and plants return every generation to a single nucleated cell’[44] [emp. added].
These two evolutionists have admitted that meiosis is critical for sexual reproduction. Yet in their volume, Slanted Truths, they stated unequivocally that meiotic sex evolved “520 million years ago.”[45] How, pray tell, could the bacteria that are supposed to be responsible for the evolution of sex have “stabilized a billion years ago” (as Grassé observed that they did), and then 500 million years after that stabilization, mutate enough to “evolve” the painstaking process of meiosis? At some point authors must be questioned as to the rationale in their thinking? Read carefully the following scenario, as set forth in Jennifer Ackerman’s 2001 book, Chance in the House of Fate, and as you do, concentrate on the items we have placed in bold print that are intended to draw the reader’s attention to the “just-so” nature of the account being proffered.

‘The first sex cells may have been interchangeable and of roughly the same size. By chance, some may have been slightly bigger than others and stuffed with nutrients, an advantage in getting progeny off to a good start. Perhaps some were smaller, faster, good at finding mates. As organisms continued to meld and join their genetic material, the pairs of a larger cell with a smaller one proved an efficient system. Over time, the little rift between the sexes widened, as did the strategies of male and female for propagating their own genes’[46] [emp. added].
The first sex cells may have been.... By chance, some may have been.... Perhaps some were.... Over time, the.... It is little wonder that, in their more candid moments, evolutionists admit, as Ackerman eventually did, that “when it comes to sex, we inhabit a mystery.”[47]

Notice, however, the admission by Margulis and Sagan that “meiosis seems connected with complex cell and tissue differentiation.” Indeed it does—now! But how did a process as incredibly complex as meiosis ever get started in the first place? What (or, better yet, Who) “intricately connected it with complex cell and tissue differentiation”? With all due respect, there is not an evolutionist on the planet who has been able to come up with an adequate (much less believable) explanation as to how somatic cells reproduce by mitosis (thereby maintaining the species’ standard chromosome number in each cell), while gametes are produced by meiosis—wherein that chromosome number is halved so that, at the union of the male and female gametes during reproduction, the standard number is reinstated.

Conclusion

Lewis Thomas, the highly regarded medical doctor who served for many years as the president and chancellor of the prestigious Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in Manhattan, was unable to contain either his enthusiasm or his praise for the system we know as “sexual reproduction.” In his book, The Medusa and the Snail, he wrote about the “miracle” of how one sperm cell forms with one egg cell to produce the cell we know as a zygote, which, nine months later, will become a newborn human being. He concluded:

‘The mere existence of that cell should be one of the greatest astonishments of the earth. People ought to be walking around all day, all through their waking hours, calling to each other in endless wonderment, talking of nothing except that cell.... If anyone does succeed in explaining it, within my lifetime, I will charter a skywriting airplane, maybe a whole fleet of them, and send them aloft to write one great exclamation point after another around the whole sky, until all my money runs out.’[48]
Dr. Thomas’ money is perfectly safe. No one has been able to explain—from an evolutionary viewpoint—the origin of sex, the origin of the incredibly complex meiotic process that makes sex possible, or the intricate development of the embryo (which is itself a marvel of design). At conception, the chromosomes inherited from the sperm are paired with the chromosomes inherited from the egg to give the new organism its full chromosomal complement. Evolutionary theorists ask us to believe that random, chance occurrences brought about this marvelously interdependent process of, first, splitting the genetic information into equal halves, and, second, recombining it through sexual reproduction. Not only is an intricate process required to produce a sperm or egg cell in the first place via meiosis, but another equally intricate mechanism also is required to rejoin the genetic information during fertilization in order to produce the zygote, which will become the embryo, which will become the fetus, which eventually will become the newborn. The idea that all of this “just evolved” is unworthy of consideration or acceptance, especially in light of the evidence now at hand.

The highly complex and intricate manner in which the human body reproduces offspring is not a matter of mere chance or a “lucky role of the dice.” Rather, it is the product of an intelligent Creator. Albert Einstein said it well when he stated: “God does not play dice with the universe.”[49]

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General Introduction: My long-term goal is to understand the evolution of sexual reproduction. For many non-biologists the biggest barrier to understanding this field is accepting that , for biologists, sex poses a serious problem .

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