Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins

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Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins » Philosophy and God » A cumulative case for the God of the bible

A cumulative case for the God of the bible

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1 A cumulative case for the God of the bible on Sun May 25, 2014 2:06 pm

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A cumulative case for the God of the bible

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1753-a-cumulative-case-for-theism

We have no access through our senses to prove empirically what ultimate reality is. If God exists, or not, cannot be known scientifically.  That's why it makes no sense to ask for proofs of Gods existence. All we can do is evaluate, and figure out the preponderance of the evidence, where it leads to.

The steps of progression to elaborate an epistemologically solid world view goes as follows:
1. The starting point with the recognition that agnosticism or ignorance has no justification in the age of information.
2. Defining a solid epistemological framework, excluding scientism or verificationism, and permitting a holistic examination of evidence including philosophical and theological considerations. The best methodology to make meaningful inferences and conclude the best, most accurate world view is based on the current wealth of knowledge of operational and historical sciences, philosophy, and theism.
3. Disposition to analyze the evidence as much honest and unbiased as possible, permitting it to lead wherever it is.  An unbiased starting point for inquiry of world views and explanations of origins is essential in order to come as close as possible to gain a realistic understanding of reality that includes physics and metaphysics. That means proper understanding of science, philosophical and theological explanations and searching for truth without eliminating possible theistic implications a priori.
4. Research of falsifiable scientific evidence and philosophical considerations which after careful evaluation point to Intelligence as a better mechanism to explain our origins than naturalistic explanations.
5. The inference of intelligent design/creationism  leads to deism, theism or pantheism.
6. Philosophical considerations lead  to agnostic theism
7. Specifics about various evidence leads to the conclusion of Infinite Creator.
8. Comparative religions and historical evidence point to God of the Hebrews/Abraham.
9. Internal evidence constrains the choice of Judaism. Islam, Christianity, and born-again Christianity.
10. How we proceed in the cumulative case for Christianity is a much more detailed step. Ultimately we are not talking about "proof" like in repeated experimentation...but rather a preponderance of the evidence. There's no empirical proof for the Resurrection or the Virgin birth. These too are based on faith and the cumulative case made for Christianity. Ultimately it is the conviction of the Holy Spirit to believe in the miracles of Jesus and His Lordship/Deity.
Here some points to consider:

Babu G. Ranganathan: The greatest fact of history is the resurrection of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. The resurrection of Christ was witnessed by His disciples, as well as many others. The disciples were afraid after Jesus died and went into hiding. It’s only because they witnessed Jesus having rose from the dead that they had the courage to preach the Christian Gospel at the risk of being put to death.
Christianity would not have succeeded if Christ had not risen from the dead. The disciples wouldn’t have had the courage to preach that Christ is Lord and Savior and that salvation is only through His name if they really believed Christ was still dead.
The unique message of the Christian Gospel that men cannot save themselves, as the other religions taught, and that only through Christ’s atoning work on the Cross can men be saved was an unwelcome message and could not have been invented or originated from men. The early Christians were threatened with torture and death for preaching such a message.
The Apostles performed signs and wonders as evidence of their authority. We could not have even gotten the Christian Scriptures and the spread of the Christian faith without the Apostles providing objective (scientific) evidence that they spoke for God. All of this constitutes forensic science supporting the Christian Scriptures to be the Word of God. Therefore, we can trust that the Bible we now have is of divine and supernatural origin and that the men who wrote the original Scriptures were, indeed, guided by God so that it was error free.
There are numerous scientific truths in the Bible giving evidence that the writers of Scripture were, indeed, guided by God. For example, the Bible tells us in Isaiah 40:22 that the Earth is a sphere: “He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens like a canopy, and spreads them out like a tent to live in” (KJV). The word “circle” in the passage comes from the original Hebrew word meaning “sphere.”
In Job 26:7 we read that the Earth is suspended in space: “He spreads out the northern skies over empty space; he suspends the earth over nothing” (NIV).
In Isaiah 55:10 we read about the evaporation and condensation cycle: “As the rain and the snow come down from heaven, and do not return to it without watering the earth and making it bud and flourish, so that it yields seed for the sower and bread for the eater” (NIV).
In Psalm 8:8, the Bible states that there are ocean currents in the depths of the sea, something only discovered in modern times. There are many more examples that can be cited.
It is from science we know that the Bible is God's Word and, therefore, it is totally scientific to judge the scientific theories of men by Scripture. We need not prove scientifically everything in the Bible to know that it's true. That's not necessary because, as mentioned, once it has been shown from science that the Bible must be of divine origin then it stands to reason that whatever Scripture teaches on any subject must be true. No further external or scientific evidence is necessary.


Hugh Ross, Why the Universe is the way it is, page 77:
The Bible claims to come from the Cosmic Manufacturer. So although its primary purpose is not to describe the physical details of the universe and Earth, what it says about them should match observable reality. Checking those details can be done more easily today than in the past because so many more characteristics of the universe, Earth, life, and humanity have been discovered—including the physics of our cosmic beginning. If authors writing 2,000 to 3,500 years ago accurately recorded detailed information about the universe, Earth, and life not found in any other ancient text, and if modern scientific discoveries consistently prove all that information correct, then we have powerful evidence those details must have been inspired by a Source beyond humanity.

-Only the Christian God is both personal (in Christ) and absolute (beyond the material world and expanding into infinite space and is eternal and all-knowing and everywhere at once). All other gods are either one or the other; personal and just a little larger than man, i.e. Greek gods. Or…they are so abstract and absolute that they are unknowable, such as Allah.
-Since the Christian God is both personal and absolutely powerful and all present at the same time; only the Christian religion is coherent and can be the foundation for experience and reality.
a. The Christian God can be the source of keeping nature uniform for science to operate.
b. The Christian God can account for the existence of invisible entities such as laws of thought or logic, beauty, propositions, spirits, etc.
c. The Christian God can be the only true source for personal morality and these morals are an expression of an absolute powerful and all knowing God. Therefore, since this morality (expressed in the ten commandments and other biblical laws) is above man, it is a perfect source for government laws, Church laws, and personal morals.
11. Finally, born again christianity is the most consistent view.


Atheists err when asking for material evidence to prove God's existence
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2256-atheists-err-when-asking-for-material-evidence-to-prove-god-s-existence

The steps of progression go as follows:
1. The starting point with the recognition that agnosticism or ignorance has no justification in the age of information.

Limited causal alternatives  do not permit to claim of " not knowing "
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1810-limited-causal-alternatives-for-origins

2. Defining a solid epistemological framework, excluding scientism or verificationism, and permitting a holistic examination of evidence including philosophical and theological considerations. The best methodology to make meaningful inferences and conclude the best, most accurate world view is based on the current wealth of knowledge of operational and historical sciences, philosophy, and theism.

Positivism and the Presumption of Atheism
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1759-cientism-and-verificationism?highlight=verificationism

3. Disposition  to analyse the evidence as much honest and unbiased as possible, permitting it to lead wherever it is.  A unbiased starting point for inquiry of world views and explanations of origins is essential in order to come as close as possible to gain a realistic understanding of reality  that includes physics and metaphysics. That means proper understanding of science, philosophical and theological explanations and searching for truth without  eliminating possible theistic implications a priori.
4. Research of falsifiable scientific evidence and philosophical considerations which after careful evaluation point  to Intelligence as a better mechanism to explain our origins than naturalistic explanations.

These include the inquiry of:

The ontological argument is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence or reality as well as the basic categories of being and their relations
http://www.strangenotions.com/god-exists/#13

The origin of the universe (sometimes called the Cosmological Argument: if the universe had a beginning, who is its Beginner?)
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1297-the-universe-most-probabaly-had-a-beginning

The Teleological argument (sometimes call the Design Argument )considerations based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural or physical world, which includes:

The fine tuning of the universe
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1277-fine-tuning-of-the-universe

The origin of chemical elements, galaxies, stars and planets
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1922-chronology-and-timeline-of-origins-of-the-universe-life-and-biodiversity-the-lack-of-explanatory-power-open-questions-and-refuted-claims-of-naturalism

The origin of life (a scientifically intractable problem)
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1279-abiogenesis-is-impossible

The origin of biodiversity
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2316-where-do-complex-organisms-come-from

The Argument from Reason (how can we reason if reason did not produce us?)
http://www.reasonsforgod.org/the-best-reasons/the-argument-from-reason/

The Moral Argument (we all recognize a moral law; who then is the moral Lawgiver?)
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1369-the-moral-argument-for-gods-existence

Fulfilled prophecy in the bible
http://www.100prophecies.org/

The resurrection of Jesus Christ
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1764-evidence-of-the-ressurrection

The occurrence of miracles
http://www.christiananswers.net/dictionary/miracle.html


5. The inference of intelligent design / creationism  leads to deism, theism or pantheism.
6. Philosophical considerations lead  to agnostic theism
7. Specifics about various evidences leads to the conclusion of Infinite Creator.
8. Comparative religions and historical evidence points to God of the Hebrews/Abraham.
9. Internal evidence constrains the choice of Judaism. Islam, Christianity, and born-again Christianity.
10. How we proceed in the cumulative case for Christianity is a much more detailed step. Ultimately we are not talking about "proof" like in repeated experimentation...but rather a preponderance of the evidence. There's no empirical proof for the Resurrection or the Virgin birth. These too are based on faith and the cumulative case made for Christianity. Ultimately it is the conviction of the Holy Spirit to believe in the miracles of Jesus and His Lordship/Deity.
11. Finally, born again christianity is the most consistent view.

Can Science Identify the Intelligent Designer?
http://www.reasons.org/articles/can-science-identify-the-intelligent-designer

Is the Bible Historically Accurate?
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1974-is-the-bible-historically-accurate

The Cumulative Case for Christianity
http://cumulativecase.blogspot.com.br/2014/03/the-cumulative-case-for-christianity.html

The Evidence for Christianity
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1373-the-evidence-for-christianity

There are many areas from which we can collect data and we argue that the cumulative case points to the God of the Bible: the universe had a beginning (the Bible recorded this thousands of years ago); the universe is very delicately balanced (fine tuned for life) including the weak and strong nuclear forces, gravity and electromagnetic force, the precise conditions of the Big Bang (the slightest change would have resulted in collapse or too rapid an expansion); the placing of the Earth within the solar system, the structure and placing of solar system within the Milkyway, the placing of the Milkyway in relation to other systems in space; the DNA with all its particular information for all the functions needed for life; irreducible complexity in living systems; the discoverable nature of the universe; the existence of logic and mathematics; our ability to reason and think freely and logically; our exercise of freewill; our inate sense of objective morality; our inate sense of purpose; etc, etc. All these point to an Intelligent Designer. Then, we consider the 300+ prophecies fulfilled by Jesus of Nazareth; the fact that the Apostles all suffered the loss of everything rather than recant their claim to having witnessed the risen Christ leads you to the God of the Bible. Now, that leads us to infer the Christian worldview.



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Revisiting the cumulative case argument for "how we KNOW that there is a Creator." (first 10 steps moving toward the conclusion of the God of Abraham)
1. concluding the difference between non-contingent Self-existence and Aseity verses finite gods, fairies and stupid stuff. Concluding that there is a first a "difference" between logical candidate Creators (Higher Power, deistic type Creator, infinite force, Infinite Creator) and unicorns, invisible dragons, mythological gods and flying spaghetti monsters.
2. concluding that just because people have different beliefs "about" the Creator and some people have worshiped myths does NOT mean that the Creator has to be a myth. (especially if there is a cumulative case for "a" Creator based on evidence given and reason which separates it from mythology).
3. concluding that "lack of belief in God or gods" is superior to the foolish belief "that there IS no God" Explicit atheism to Implicit atheism. Many here still argue for explicit with no evidence for it... and the lack of understanding that you would have to be omniscient about points one and two in order to make a valid positive claim that there is no Creator.
4. Concluding that you should not start with circular assumptions about the empirical/natural world. Removing circular assumptions and positive claims of materialism and being open minded about the possibility of creation or even a divine sustaining power behind the natural order (which could be concluded through cumulative case).
5. Concluding that you might be able to make a valid conclusion of a Creator. Recognizing that a classical agnostic position of "I don't know yet" is superior to "I can't know" which is a positive claim which is excluding possible evidence.
6. Concluding that you should allow the identification of features in ALL known systems which require known causes which are not present within such system(s). Concluding that you should not have a bias against the best logical explanation for identifying features.
7. Concluding that you should logically remove the bias of methodological naturalism and requiring explanations to fit circular assumptions. Concluding that you could be excluding the best most logical conclusion/explanation by wrongfully requiring natural explanations for features which do not and should not require it.
8. Concluding that there are features in biological systems which clearly come from Intelligence. Concluding that there is indeed EVIDENCE of Intelligent coding, Intelligent engineering and Intelligent designing in biological systems. Evidence:
Exhibit A. Information in biological systems
Exhibit B. Molecular and protein machines
Exhibit C. Cellular Metabolism as a whole and protein synthesis
Exhibit D. IF-THEN algorithmic programming
Concluding that identification of features which come from Intelligence is clearly a different scientific premise from later possible or probably conclusions of theism.
9. Concluding that science should be an observation of the facts and a search for the truth and not exclude implications of a Creator. Concluding that theistic implications should be allowed in science. Concluding that a Creator of the all that is within the universe should be allowed as a logical Candidate for such "Intelligence." (in point )
10. Concluding that the universe contains features (including features in biological systems) which are best explained by a Creator. Concluding that there are too many features in the universe to deny the logic of some sort of Infinite force; some sort of Higher Power; some sort of Cosmic Designer; or some sort of possible Infinite Creator that best explains the universes origin and first cause. Concluding that because of earth's special location in the galaxy and because of the all the forces which would need to be fine tuned in order to have conscious observers... that the best and only logical conclusion is that there is indeed some sort of Higher Power and First Cause which is required to explain the origin of the universe. Concluding that you CAN indeed know that there is INDEED a Creator... because it is the only logical conclusion to explain both features in biological systems which come from Intelligence and features in the universe which demonstrate the need for cosmic purpose, order and intentionality.
This is the cumulative case argument for the first conclusion of "General agnostic undecided theism." This cumulative case argument only applies to logical candidate Creator concepts for explaining the origin of the universe.


It does NOT provide a cumulative case argument for fairies, unicorns, or flying spaghetti monsters.... It only provides a cumulative case argument for logical candidate creators of general theism. Question everything... (as we look at the next cumulative case argument to connect agnostic theism to the God of Abraham in considering the logic of those candidate creators).

1. concluding the difference between non-contingent Self-existence and Aseity verses finite gods, fairies and stupid stuff. Concluding that there is a first a "difference" between logical candidate Creators (Higher Power, deistic type Creator, infinite force, Infinite Creator) and unicorns, invisible dragons, mythological gods and flying spaghetti monsters.
2. concluding that just because people have different beliefs "about" the Creator and some people have worshiped myths does NOT mean that the Creator has to be a myth. (especially if there is a cumulative case for "a" Creator based on evidence given and reason which separates it from mythology).
3. concluding that "lack of belief in God or gods" is superior to the foolish belief "that there IS no God" Explicit atheism to Implicit atheism. Many here still argue for explicit with no evidence for it... and the lack of understanding that you would have to be omniscient about points one and two in order to make a valid positive claim that there is no Creator.
4. Conclusion that you should not start with circular assumptions about the empirical/natural world. Removing circular assumptions and positive claims of materialism and being open minded about the possibility of creation or even a divine sustaining power behind the natural order (which could be concluded through cumulative case).
5. Concluding that you might be able to make a valid conclusion of a Creator. Recognizing that a classical agnostic position of "I don't know yet" is superior to "I can't know" which is a positive claim which is excluding possible evidence.
6. Concluding that you should allow the identification of features in ALL known systems which require known causes which are not present within such system(s). Concluding that you should not have a bias against the best logical explanation for identifying features.
7. Concluding that you should logically remove the bias of methodological naturalism and requiring explanations to fit circular assumptions. Concluding that you could be excluding the best most logical conclusion/explanation by wrongfully requiring natural explanations for features which do not and should not require it.
8. Concluding that there are features in biological systems which clearly come from Intelligence. Concluding that there is indeed EVIDENCE of Intelligent coding, Intelligent engineering and Intelligent designing in biological systems. Evidence:
Exhibit A. Information in biological systems
Exhibit B. Molecular and protein machines
Exhibit C. Cellular Metabolism as a whole and protein synthesis
Exhibit D. IF-THEN algorithmic programming
Concluding that identification of features which come from Intelligence is clearly a different scientific premise from later possible or probably conclusions of theism.
9. Concluding that science should be an observation of the facts and a search for the truth and not exclude implications of a Creator. Concluding that theistic implications should be allowed in science. Concluding that a Creator of the all that is within the universe should be allowed as a logical Candidate for such "Intelligence." (in point 8  )
10. Concluding that the universe contains features (including features in biological systems) which are best explained by a Creator. Concluding that there are too many features in the universe to deny the logic of some sort of Infinite force; some sort of Higher Power; some sort of Cosmic Designer; or some sort of possible Infinite Creator that best explains the universes origin and first cause. Concluding that because of earth's special location in the galaxy and because of the all the forces which would need to be fine tuned in order to have conscious observers... that the best and only logical conclusion is that there is indeed some sort of Higher Power and First Cause which is required to explain the origin of the universe. Concluding that you CAN indeed know that there is INDEED a Creator... because it is the only logical conclusion to explain both features in biological systems which come from Intelligence and features in the universe which demonstrate the need for cosmic purpose, order and intentionality.
This is the cumulative case argument for the first conclusion of "General agnostic undecided theism." This cumulative case argument only applies to logical candidate Creator concepts for explaining the origin of the universe.
It does NOT provide a cumulative case argument for fairies, unicorns, or flying spaghetti monsters.... It only provides a cumulative case argument for logical candidate creators of general theism. Question everything... (as we look at the next cumulative case argument to connect agnostic theism to the God of Abraham in considering the logic of those candidate creators).

Even if you prove that this world comes into existence due to intelligence or higher power, you still have not "proved" the God of the Bible or the God of Abraham. That must be done through accumulative case argument...and even then... it is an argument via providing evidence....it is NOT the same thing as empirical proof.
The first problem we have is that "proof" requires honesty on the part of the person examining the proof or examining the evidence.
If the person being presented with the evidence does not allow the evidence by definition of a particular field of study, then you have a whole system which denies certain evidence.
In contemporary evidential apologetics (rather than presuppositional apologetics) we build cumulative case arguments starting with scientific
evidence. First we need to show that science can allow for identifying the work of intelligence, even if you don't prove what the Intelligence is.
Then we proceed to show evidence that biological systems are the result of intelligence, once such evidence is allowed. After this, we move from identifying that something is the result of intelligence to allowing for theistic implications in science. This is to propose various "candidates" for such intelligence which is evidenced in biological systems. Then through other arguments such as the fine tuning of the universe, we argue for agnostic theism. Agnostic theism is a step in the progression of the cumulative case argument for the God of Abraham...but you must first reach agnostic theism before you can proceed to "candidate creators" for such theism. Then we proceed to argue for self-existence (Aseity) and other arguments which substantiate an eternal Creator... from there we argue for infinite Creator...and then from Infinite Creator to monotheism and then from monotheism to historical orthodox monotheism being the God of Abraham. It must be taken in steps, but it requires honesty on the part of the person examining the cumulative case...and often involves removing the blinders of naturalism/materialism in science.


The Cumulative Case for Christianity
http://cumulativecase.blogspot.com.br/2014/03/the-cumulative-case-for-christianity.html

Have you ever seen a TV show in which a criminal is being brought to trial, and the cops or prosecutors are lamenting over the fact that their case is entirely "circumstantial"? Or maybe the defense attorney is confident in a victory because of that fact? These (fictional) scenarios portray "circumstantial" evidence in a very negative light. However, the fact of the matter is, if you have enough circumstantial evidence, then your case becomes nearly air-tight.

The evidential case for Christianity is a very strong case because it is based a panoply of circumstantial evidence. Each piece adds more weight to the Cumulative Case for Christianity. Denial of any one piece of evidence is like trying to remove a single stone from a mighty fortress: you may think you have done something until you realize the fortress is built on a massive foundation. Yet to deny enough of the evidence to try to shake the foundation requires such extreme (and unfounded) skepticism that such a position does not hold up well to criticism.

It is really impossible to list all of the evidences in favor of Christianity, and also those in opposition to naturalism, which I consider to be the zeitgeist and current "en vogue" challenger to Christianity, but here are a few important ones:

Each one of these, of course, has its counterarguments, but for each one the strength of the counterargument is that most would prefer a natural explanation to a supernatural one...even if the natural explanation is unsatisfactory, unsupported, and improbable (compared to the supernatural one). But there are only so many times you can plausibly deny pieces of the Cumulative Case before you have gone off the deep end into a hyper-skepticism that you would never apply to any rational decision you would make in any other area of life.

The Cumulative Case for Christianity is incredibly strong, is only getting stronger, and is here to stay. So hold on as we explore the depths of this Cumulative Case. Or, as Morpheus (quoting Carrol) said, "I'll show you how deep the rabbit hole goes."


http://www.ovrlnd.com/Apologetics/CumulativeApologetics.html
1. If something is really true, it is true whether or not I believe it. Truth is bigger than me.
2. This is not an argument from nothing to something; rather it is an explanation of the evidence that we must admit we have before us.
3. Plausibility does not depend upon our comprehensive understanding of the details (e.g., one need not know and understand everything about electrical science in order to make use of electricity).

Michael Breck you should be able to just look at a snowflake under a microscope and conclude that it was formed by a designed process. Crystallization to me... is clear evidence of a Creator. Whether you look at a tree or any mammal or even insect or fish... you should be able to have some intuitive sense that it is not the result of accident or chance... but there is meaning and purpose in the universe. For those who do not see clearly... we have more persuasive arguments. The arrangement of codon triplets in specific order as to be used as a template for coding polypeptide sequences is clearly information. Information always comes from Intelligence. Random processes never put things in any useful order (unless such order is already present in the system). Mechanical working systems themselves are also clearly the result of Intelligence. The nano factory of the living cell that performs processes like protein biosynthesis is clearly the result of Intelligence. When we look at other features in microbiology such as gene regulation of the lactose operon in E. coli we see IF-THEN algorithms based on contingency built into the code: IF lactose is present, and IF glucose is absent THEN synthesize beta-galactosidase and permease. Someone clearly programmed this as they did all of the genetic code. These types of points are often made within a cumulative case argument for general theism once "identifying features in biological systems which are the result of Intelligence" are allowed. This step is actually distinct from theistic implication which comes later in the cumulative case. There are other ways in which we can know there is a Creator or an Originator... just using basic reasoning to honestly admit that you can't have an infinite regress... and that you must at some point have a non-contingent Originator (uncaused) which possesses the quality of "being" itself in order to have any sort of existence now is a good step toward a reasonable theism (but clearly this does not prove the God of Abraham...that is an additional distinct cumulative case argument).



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David King 
1. Argue for ID (Intelligent Design) first.

2. Find out WHY the atheist became an atheist to begin with. (His underlying reason may have nothing to do with science, but may have everything to do with anger at God for allowing his loved one to die or for allowing evil into to world at all. I believe that if this issue is not dealt with earlier in the protocol, sometimes the emotions of the atheist will so color his reasoning that he will be blinded to the logic necessary to reason through the science.)

3. The answer to #2 will guide how you proceed from there. 

4. Once the atheist is hopefully convinced that an Intelligent Designer exists, then I would use the science to support the Genesis record. Two easy areas are the following:

(A) "The Laws of genetic mutations tell us that the vast majority of genetic mutations are bad. Therefore, since each generation inherits all the genetic defects from the previous generation (plus adds more genetic defects during its lifespan from cosmic ray protons and ingested chemicals, etc.) then it is self-evident that each generation in the past had to have a progressively better genetic code. Consequently, the laws of genetic mutations tell us that in the distant past, there had to be a state of genetic perfection for all plants, animals and people--a Garden of Eden (if you will), created by the same Intelligent Designer. But why didn't the genetics remain perfect? This is consistent with the Fall of Man. Thus the Laws of genetic mutations testify to the Garden of Eden and the Fall of Man. 

(B) The geologic evidence (and the paleontologic evidence) of Noah's Flood.

Hopefully, this might give the person a foundation for the gospel of Christ.

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