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Endocrine System

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1 Endocrine System on Mon Jun 30, 2014 8:29 pm

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Endocrine System

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1800-endocrine-system#2962

http://www.innerbody.com/image/endoov.html#full-description

Anatomy of the Endocrine System

Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a part of the brain located superior and anterior to the brain stem and inferior to the thalamus. It serves many different functions in the nervous system, and is also responsible for the direct control of the endocrine system through the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus contains special cells called neurosecretory cells—neurons that secrete hormones:

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Oxytocin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

http://www.creationofman.net/chapter3/chapter3_1.html

Suppose that everyone in the world, about 6 billion people, works for the same organization. Everyone has his own special job. Hundreds of thousands, sometimes millions of people gather under the same roof to perform a common task. There is such a tight web of administration and information that every one of these 6 billion people is informed individually by means of a cellular phone as to what he or she has to do. For example, if one of these people is employed in a factory, he may sometimes be told to increase the speed of production, sometimes to slow it down, and sometimes to alter the product. Finally, imagine that an organized plan and communications system exist so that millions of people throughout the hundreds of thousands of different locations all over the world work according to this common plan.

Now, let's enlarge our example a little. Imagine that the population of the world is much greater than it is at present, but that our organization functions even more efficiently.


The communication and coordination of the many branches of an international company is very complicated. Directors, managers, engineers and advertisers have to be in touch with one another at all times. The communication network in the human body is millions of times more complex than that of the largest international company.

Suppose that the population is fifteen thousand times greater than it is today, that there are fifteen thousand other planets like this Earth and that the 6 billion people crowded onto each planet make up a total of 100 trillion people. Further suppose that this collection of human beings works together in perfect harmony, each individual being informed by cellular phone as to what he has to do.

This example is beyond our power to conceive, but is actually a simplified description of an existing organization, which operates every second throughout the whole world among the approximately 100 trillion cells that make up the human body.

As you are reading this, millions of operations are happening in your body. In these operations there is a calculation of the needs of every cell in every part of the body, and a determination of what function each cell must perform; measures are taken to respond to the requirements of the cells and each cell is informed individually as to what it must do.

For example, what allows you to read this book are your eye cells, and to nourish them, glucose is required. To respond to those needs, a system was established in your body that calculates how much sugar there is in your blood and that keeps the amount stable. There is a great plan, organized by the web of communication among the cells, that calculates how many times a minute your heart must beat, the level of calcium stored in your body, the amount of blood your kidneys filter and thousands of other such details. This system of chemical communication that ensures that the 100 trillion cells work in harmony with one another is called the hormone system.

The hormone system, together with the nervous system, ensures the coordination of the cells of the body. If we compare the nervous system to messages sent over the Internet, the hormone system can be compared to a letter sent by post: it is slower, but its effect lasts longer.

When we examine these systems that control the body, a fact becomes clear that most people are not aware of. Most people are convinced that they themselves control the direction of their lives. If you asked someone, "How much of your body do you control?" he would surely say, "All of it." But this answer contradicts the scientific facts.

A person is in control of a very limited part of his body, and even of that part his control is only partial. For example, he can use his body to walk, or to speak or he can use his hands to work, but deep within his body there are thousands of chemical and physical operations going on without his knowing about or willing them. Anyone who thinks that he is completely in charge of his own body (or his own life) is greatly mistaken.

The two Governors of our body: The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland

The fact that you are able to sit comfortably in your chair and read these sentences is due to systems that organize the internal balance of your body for your benefit. For example, no matter what the temperature outside, your body must always be kept at a constant temperature, usually between 36.5 and 37.5 degrees. A sudden fall or rise in body temperature may result in death. The body temperature of a healthy individual, thanks to these systems, will vary at most 0.5 of a degree. In the same way, the pressure of the blood in the veins, the amount of fluid in the blood, and the speed at which the cells function must be delicately measured, and the existing balance safeguarded at every moment.

Let us imagine the efforts needed to artificially ensure these balances. First, imagine that there exist delicate thermometers in a few places in the body, special devices to measure the density of the blood in the veins, and mini laboratories to control the rate of speed at which the cells function. Then, imagine that all these thousands of tiny devices located in every point in the body must make the right assessments every second and transmit the information they receive to a highly advanced computer.

However, it is not enough that these assessments are made alone; at the same time, it is also necessary to know, according to the available data, which actions must be taken and what kind of command must be given to which cells.

Of course, even with the state of today's technology, it is still impossible to place thousands of thermometers, a mini laboratory, and pressure measuring devices in the depths of the human body. Yet a special system with the finest possible design has been placed from birth deep in the human body.

Thousands of different receivers measure such things as the body's temperature and the pressure in the blood vessels. Then they send this information to a very special computer. This computer is the area of the brain called the hypothalamus.

YOUR BODY'S HIDDEN MANAGER: THE HYPOTHALAMUS

The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό = under and θάλαμος = room, chamber) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brainstem. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus. In humans, it is roughly the size of an almond.

The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst,[1] fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.


The hypothalamus is the general director of the hormone system; it has the vital task of ensuring the internal stability of the human body. At every moment, the hypothalamus assesses messages coming to it from the brain and the depths of the body. Afterwards, it performs a number of functions, such as maintaining a stable body temperature, controlling blood pressure, ensuring a fluid balance, and even proper sleep patterns.

The hypothalamus is located directly under the brain and is the size of a hazel nut.




A considerable amount of information relative to the body state is sent to the hypothalamus. Information is transmitted to it from every point in the body, including the sense centers in the brain. It then analyses the information it has received, decides what measures are to be taken, what changes must be made in the body, and causes the appropriate cells of the body to carry out its decisions.

The basic point that must be noticed here is this: the hypothalamus is an organ composed of unconscious cells. A cell does not know how long a human being needs to sleep; it cannot calculate what the body's temperature should be. It cannot make the best decision based on the information at hand, and it cannot make another cell in a far removed area of the body carry out this decision. Yet the cells in the hypothalamus act in an extraordinarily conscious manner to ensure that the necessary balances in the body are maintained.


Most of the information about the human body comes to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus interprets this information, makes the necessary decisions and causes the cells put these decisions into practice. On the left, we see the position of the hypothalamus in the brain.

One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to form a bridge between the hormonal system and the other system that controls and oversees the body-the nervous system. The hypothalamus not only directs the hormonal system, but also the nervous system with a high degree of expertise.

The hypothalamus has a very important assistant in its role of governing the body; this assistant informs the appropriate body areas of the decisions that have been taken. For example, when there is a drop in blood pressure, bits of information are set into motion, and these inform the hypothalamus of the change in pressure; then the hypothalamus decides what measures must be taken to raise it and informs its assistant of its decision.

In order to effect the decision, the helper knows which cells must receive the command. It writes messages in a language that these cells can understand and transmits them immediately. The cells obey the command they have received and take the appropriate action to raise the blood pressure.

This assistant to the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland, which also has a very important influence on the hormonal system.

Pituitary gland

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pituitary_gland

In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum). The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The pituitary gland sits in the hypophysial fossa, situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis.



Between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland there is a marvelous system of communication. These two pieces of flesh actually communicate like two conscious human beings. The hypothalamus has complete control over the pituitary gland and its vital secretion of several hormones.

For example, the hypothalamus of a growing child sends a message to the pituitary gland with the command, "secrete the growth hormone" and the pituitary gland then secretes the growth hormone exactly as needed.

Something similar happens when the cells of the body need to work faster; this time there is a two-stage chain of command. The hypothalamus sends an order to the pituitary gland which, in turn, sends the order to the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland secretes the proper amount of thyroid hormone and the cells of the body begin to work faster.


The location of the hormonal glands under the control of the hypothalamus in the body.




When the adrenal glands

In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that sit at the top of the kidneys. They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline. They also produce androgens in their innermost cortical layer. The adrenal glands affect kidney function through the secretion of aldosterone, and recent data (1998) suggest that adrenocortical cells under pathological as well as under physiological conditions show neuroendocrine properties; within normal adrenal glands, this neuroendocrine differentiation seems to be restricted to cells of the zona glomerulosa and might be important for an autocrine regulation of adrenocortical function.[1]




(which produce several very important hormones) must be activated or the reproductive organs must produce their hormones, the hypothalamus again sends a message to the pituitary gland, which directs it to the relevant areas and ensures the required hormones in those areas are secreted.

The hormones produced by the hypothalamus to direct the pituitary gland include:

Growth hormone-releasing hormone
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Corticotropin-releasing hormone
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.



In some cases the hypothalamus, in order to intervene in the activity of the cells, uses two hormones that it has secreted itself. To store these hormones, it first sends them to the pituitary gland, then, when required, it ensures that they are secreted by the pituitary gland. These hormones are:

Vasopressin (an antidiuretic, i.e., water retaining, hormone)
Oxytocin


These two hormone molecules produced by the hypothalamus are very small. One of them is only three amino acids large. The hypothalamus hormones are distinguished from other hormones not only by being small; they also differ from other hormones by the distance they cover in the body. Hormones generally travel a long distance from the hormonal gland where they were produced to the designated organ. However, the hypothalamus hormones reach the pituitary gland after passing through only a capillary vessel a few millimeters thick. They never enter the general circulatory system.

The hypothalamus produces the hormones that activate the pituitary gland, and when necessary, it also produces hormones that stop the pituitary gland at the appropriate time from secreting a certain hormone. In this way, it has complete control over the activity of the pituitary gland.



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2 The Hormones Secreted by the Pituitary Gland on Wed Jul 02, 2014 7:37 pm

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The Hormones Secreted by the Pituitary Gland

THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

Commands come continually to all parts of the body from the pituitary gland. By means of these commands, a considerable number of the perfect operations in the body occur.
The anterior pituitary gland secretes six different hormones, whose functions have been determined. Some of these hormones that act on other hormonal glands are called "tropic hormones." They are designed to direct the hormonal system.  Another group of these hormones stimulate the tissues of the body. The names of these hormones are as follows:

Hormones which stimulate other endocrine (hormone) glands (Tropic Hormones):

1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

2. Adrenal gland stimulating hormone (adrenocorticotropic hormone - ACTH)

3. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Hormones that act on body tissues (Non-tropic hormones)

5. Growth hormone (GH)

6. Prolactin hormone (PRL)


THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND

The posterior section of the pituitary gland is the location where the hormones produced by the hypothalamus are stored. Under the right circumstances, these hormones are secreted by a command from the hypothalamus. These hormones are:

1. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)

2. Oxytocin


THE GROWTH HORMONE

A one-year old baby is about twice as heavy and 50% as long as on the day he was born. In one year, he gains weight at an amazing rate. He also grows longer, and his body grows in proportion. What causes a newly born baby who weighs three kilograms and is 50 centimeters long at birth to become a fully grown adult weighing 80 kilograms and measuring 1.80 meters twenty years later?

The answer to this question is hidden in the growth hormone found in an amazing molecule secreted by the pituitary gland.

In order for a baby to become an adult, he must grow. The growing process happens in two different ways. Some cells increase their bulk; other cells divide and multiply. What directs and ensures these two processes is the growth hormone.

The growth hormone is secreted from the pituitary gland and affects all of the cells of the body. Every cell knows the meaning of the message sent to it from the pituitary gland. In compliance with this message, it grows or multiplies.

For example, the heart of a newly born baby is about one-sixteenth the size of an adult heart, yet the total number of cells in the baby's heart is the same as that in the adult heart. As the body develops, the growth hormone affects the heart cells individually. Every cell develops according to the command given to it by the growth hormone. As a result, the heart grows and becomes an adult heart.

The multiplication of the nerve cells stops when the baby is six months old and still lives inside the mother's womb. From this time until birth and from birth to adulthood, the number of nerve cells remains constant.

The growth hormone commands the nerve cells to increase in size. When the period of growth of the nervous system has come to an end, it has reached its final form.

Other cells in the body (for example, muscle and bone cells) divide and multiply throughout their period of development. Again, it is the growth hormone that informs the cells how much they must divide.

In the light of these circumstances we must ask this question:

How is it that the pituitary gland knows the correct formula according to which the cells must divide and grow?

It is amazing that this piece of flesh, the size of a chickpea, controls all the cells of the body and causes them to grow by dividing or increasing their bulk. Another question that must be asked is: who charged this piece of flesh with this function? Why do these cells throughout their lifetime send messages commanding other cells to divide?

Cells located in one small area ensure the orderly division of trillions of other cells. However, it is impossible for these cells to observe the human body from outside to determine how much the body must grow and at which stage it must stop growing. These unconscious cells, in the darkness of the body, without even knowing what they are doing, produce the growth hormone (and cease producing it) when necessary. A perfect system has been created that controls every stage of growth and secretion of this hormone.


Obeying the growth hormone, our cells construct our faces with perfect balance and symmetry. The cells meticulously obey the command they receive and grow in proportion to one another. Otherwise, the symmetry in the human face would not be possible; if the nose grew too large, the cheekbones may not develop. Or, if the eye grew but the eye sockets did not, the eye would not be able to perform its function.

It is another wonder that the growth hormones command some cells to increase in size and others to multiply by cell division because the hormones that reach each kind of cell are identical to each other. How the cell that receives the command must react is written in its genetic code. The growth hormone issues the command to grow; how that growth will occur is recorded in the cell. This shows the power and magnificence of creation at every point in the development of the human body.

Yet another very important point is the fact that the growth hormone affects most body cells. If some cells obeyed the growth hormones and others did not, the result would be a disaster. For example, if the heart cells obeyed the commands of the growth hormone but the cells in the rib cage refused to multiply and grow, what would happen? The growing heart would be squeezed in the undersized chest cavity and die.



The growth hormone ensures that all of the organs in the body grow proportionately to one another. For example, development of the organs in the abdominal cavity and of the chest cavity is proportionate. If the growth of the chest cavity stopped and the heart continued to develop, the rib cage would crush the heart and cause death.
Or if the bone of the nose grew but the skin on it stopped growing, the bone of the nose would tear the skin and become exposed. The harmonious growth of muscles, bones, skin and other organs is ensured by the obedience of each individual cell to the growth hormone.

The growth hormone also gives the command for the development of cartilage at the ends of the bones. This cartilage is like the unformed shape of a newly born baby; if it does not grow, the baby cannot grow. The cells in this area cause the bone to grow lengthwise but how do they know that the bone must grow in this way? If this bone grew sideways, the leg would not lengthen; it could even rip the skin and be exposed. But everything is planned and this plan is written in the nucleus of every cell.

Another astonishing fact about the growth hormone is when it is secreted and how much. The growth hormones are secreted in exactly the right amount and at the time when the period of growth is most intense. This is very important because, if the amount of hormone secreted were more or less than what is needed, the result would be quite undesirable. If too little hormone is secreted, dwarfism occurs, and if too much is secreted, gigantism is the result.2

So, for this reason a very special system for regulating the amount of this hormone secreted in the body has been created. The amount of this hormone secreted is determined by the hypothalamus, which is recognized as the director of the pituitary gland. When it is time for the growth hormone to be secreted, it sends the "growth hormone-releasing hormone" (GHRH) to the pituitary gland. And when too much growth hormone has been released into the blood, the hypothalamus sends a message (the somatostatin hormone) to the pituitary gland and slows down the secretion of the growth hormone.3


Every bone cell in the body knows where it will be, what shape it will have, and how large it will grow. They obey without error the commands they receive from the growth hormone. This communication among its cells allows the body to grow in proportion.
Yet how do the cells that compose the hypothalamus know how much growth hormone there should be in the blood? How do they measure the amount of growth hormone in the blood and made a decision based on this amount? In order to explain just how great a wonder this is, let us consider an example:

Let us imagine that we have used a special device and reduced a person to several millionths of his original size, that is, to the size of a human cell. We have put him in a special capsule beside one of the cells in the region of the hypothalamus.

The job of this person is to count the number of growth hormone molecules in the capillaries passing in front of him. He determines if there is a reduction or an increase in the number of these molecules. It is well known that there are thousands of different materials contained in the blood. It is impossible for a human being (if he is not an expert in the field) to know from the molecular structure if something in front of him is a growth hormone or something else. But the person we placed in the hypothalamus must recognize with certainty the growth hormones among millions of other molecules. Moreover, he must check the amount of the hormone at all times.

How can the unconscious hypothalamus accomplish this task, which seems very difficult even for a human being? How does it measure at every moment the amount of growth hormone in the blood? How does it distinguish the growth hormone from other molecules? These cells do not have eyes to recognize molecules, or brains to evaluate a situation. But they put into effect the commands given to them in perfect a system that God has created.


If a little too much or too little growth hormone is secreted, the results are dynamic. If too little is secreted, dwarfism occurs; if too much, gigantism is the result. For this reason, God has created a special system to regulate the amount of growth hormone secreted.
The growth hormone is not only secreted in the developmental period but also continues in adulthood. Under these circumstances you would expect that people would continue to grow and become gigantic. But this does not occur.4 When a person reaches a particular size, his cells do not continue to divide and grow. Scientists still do not know why this happens. It is known that thanks to a very special system, cells are programmed not to divide and grow any more after a certain time. Given this situation, a person should think about the Power that created this perfect program. This shows us another wonder of God's creation.

It is not very difficult to understand how important it is that trillions of cells stop dividing and growing together at the correct time. If some of these cells did not stop dividing as others did, the result would be terrible. For example, if the eye cells continued to divide and multiply after the other cell groups have ceased to do so, the eye would be squeezed in its socket and burst.

After speaking about trillions of cells suddenly stopping their activities, there is something else worth remembering. Cancer is a disease that we have been fighting for decades and still have not conquered; it is caused by one single cell continuing to divide out of control. This example permits us to better understand the delicate balance that exists in the body.

In adulthood, the growth hormone continues to have an influence on a few special cells and stimulates these cells to divide and multiply. This is another wonder of creation that serves a special purpose. This cell division no longer causes the body to grow, but serves to repair and regenerate the body. For example, skin cells and red blood cells continue to divide causing our bodies to gain 200 million new cells every minute.5 These cells replace old and damaged cells. By this means, the total number of cells remains constant.

The growth hormone has a special design by which it brings several factors into use to ensure cell division and growth.


It is not possible for us to count the number of growth hormone molecules in our body's capillary vessels or to easily determine a rise or fall in that number. But the cells that make up the hypothalamus select the growth hormone from among the thousands of different materials in the blood and make the required adjustments.
For cell division and growth to occur, it is first necessary that the cells increase in size, which is possible only through an increase in their amount of protein. So, the growth hormone has a special function in accelerating the production of protein in the cell.

It is known that protein production occurs as the result of a complex process. Scientists have been able to understand only some of the superficial elements in this process after long years of research. In order to produce one molecule to accelerate the operation of this system, it is necessary to know all aspects of it. The fact that the growth hormone has a design that enables it to speed up the production of protein is a proof that the system that produces protein and the growth hormone are created by God to act in harmony with each other and perform their functions according to His command.

The growth hormone not only ensures the acceleration of the synthesis of protein, but also ensures that the requisite amount of raw material enters the cells for this purpose. The main material needed for the synthesis of protein is amino acids, the building blocks of protein. As if they were aware of this information, the growth hormone stimulates the cell membrane so that it can receive more amino acids.

In order to speed up the synthesis of protein, the metabolism of the cell must also be accelerated and, to this end, the growth hormone cooperates with other hormones. The thyroid hormone secreted during the period of growth accelerates the metabolic activities of the cells.


the growth hormone

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_hormone

Growth hormone (GH or HGH), also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. It is a type of mitogen which is specific only to certain kinds of cells. Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored, and secreted by somatotropic cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland.

GH is a stress hormone that raises the concentration of glucose and free fatty acids.[1][2] It also stimulates production of IGF-1.

At this time, HGH is still considered a very complex hormone, and many of its functions are still unknown.


How did the growth hormone evolve ?


It acts within the body with a high level of consciousness, intelligence and sense of responsibility. It is a wonder how it is able to make a perfectly formed human being.
In order for all this to happen, one more very important thing is needed: energy. Even if all the systems we have mentioned so far were perfect, they would be of no use without a source of energy. Without energy, the growth process could not occur. But the human body has been so perfectly planned that this need too has been provided for. In addition to all these intricate functions, the growth hormone performs one more very important duty. It ensures the release of fat molecules to mix with the blood. In this way, each molecule will serve as a source of fuel fulfilling the cell's energy needs.


When the growth hormone reaches the cell, it attaches itself to the appropriate receptor on the membrane. When the receptor is stimulated, the growth hormone begins to perform its function.


When reading about the activities of the growth hormone in the body, it is important to recall that what accomplishes this is a lifeless, unconscious molecule formed by the combination of a few atoms that have no hands, eyes, or brain. It is remarkable that a lifeless bit of matter can know when and where to go in the body, and when, how and by what means to stimulate it. Unconscious atoms cannot write messages and send them to one another, but this wonderful event happens when some molecules interact with each other. They immediately know what they must do and then do it. For example, when some molecules interact with the growth hormone, they immediately begin to divide. Others decide to take more amino acids. And for this it is only necessary to respond to the growth hormone. How can such a conscious and organized activity continue without interruption in the body?

http://www.sabiosciences.com/pathway.php?sn=Growth_Hormone_Signaling



Most aging individuals die from atherosclerosis, cancer, or dementia; but in the oldest old, loss of muscle strength resulting in frailty is the limiting factor for an individual's chances of living an independent life until death. Three hormonal systems show decreasing circulating hormone concentrations during normal aging: (i) estrogen (in menopause) and testosterone (in andropause), (ii) dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate (in adrenopause), and (iii) the growth hormone/IGF1 axis (in somatopause). Physical changes during aging have been considered physiologic, but there is evidence that some of these changes are related to this decline in hormonal activity. Science recognizes aging as a disease that can be reversed to a large degree by increasing GH (Growth Hormone) levels where they were in our young 20's. Biological aging is closely associated with a decline in the capacity for protein synthesis which has been hypothesized to contribute to the decline in tissue function and increased susceptibility to disease. GH and IGF1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1) are two important anabolic hormones that regulate metabolic processes including protein synthesis in almost all tissues throughout the lifespan of mammals (Ref.1). GH is required for normal postnatal growth, having a critical role in bone growth as well as important regulatory effects on protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism. The physiological effects of GH are brought about by the GHR (Growth Hormone Receptor) (Ref.2).

GH is a protein hormone composed of 191 amino acids that is secreted and synthesized by cells called somatrophs in the anterior pituitary gland, and has a profound effect on all the cells of the body, more than any other hormone. GH is produced in largest amounts during childhood and adolescence, the "peak" of our physical well being, and then gradually diminishes as we age. By age 61 our GH levels decrease to 80% less than when we were 21. The signs and symptoms of depleting GH levels in our bodies are the common signs of aging we all experience. They include: poor general health, increased body fat, increased anxiety and social isolation, lack of positive well-being. Low GH levels result in reduced energy and vitality, decreased muscle strength, increase in cholesterol, decreased bone mineral density etc. Defects in growth hormone signaling can result in dwarfism and decrease in growth hormone levels with age that play a role in the reduced function of the physiological systems (Ref.3).

Multiple signaling pathways mediate the diverse effects of GH on growth and metabolism. Biologically active GH binds to two of its transmembrane receptors: GHRs, causes dimmerization of GHR, activation of the GHR-associated JAK2 (Janus-Family Tyrosine Kinase-2), and tyrosyl phosphorylation of both JAK2 and GHR (Ref.1). These events recruit and/or activate a variety of signaling molecules, including MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases), IRS1 (Insulin Receptor Substrate-1), PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol- 3-Phosphate-Kinase), DAG (Diacylglycerol), PKC (Protein Kinase-C), Ca2+ (intracellular calcium), and STATs (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription). These signaling molecules contribute to the GH-induced changes in enzymatic activity, transport function, and gene expression that ultimately culminate in changes in growth and metabolism. Cross-talk among these signaling cascades in regulating specific genes suggests a GH-regulated signaling network. Activation of PI3K and IRS1 by GH signaling results in increased glucose uptake by effecting the translocation of GLUT4 (Glucose Transporter Protein-4) from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. PI3K also activates the Akt/PKB Pathway through PDK-1 (Phosphoinositide Dependent Kinase-1) that culminates in cell survival (Ref.3).

STAT proteins 1, 3, and 5 are recruited to the GHR-Jak2 complex and become tyrosine phosphorylated. Further phosphorylation of STAT proteins at serine residues is followed by their dimerization and translocation to the nucleus (Ref.4). GH regulates two transcription factors associated with the c-fos SRE (Serum Response Element), SRF (Serum Response Factor), and Elk1 or another TCF (Ternary Complex Factor), which contribute to GH-dependent gene expression. GHRE (GH Response Element) in the Spi 2.1 promoter that contains two GAS sites is recognized by STAT5 (Ref.5). GLE (Gamma-Activated Sequence-Like Elements) in genes such as Spi 2.1, beta casein, and CYP 3A10/6-Beta-hydroxylase, bind the transcription factor STAT5 and can mediate reporter expression in response to GH. While STAT5 plays a prominent role in the regulation of genes containing GLE sequences by GH, binding of STAT1 and STAT3 to the SIE (Sis-Inducible Element) in response to GH contribute to the regulation of c-fos gene expression. STAT5 also participates in c-fos gene gene expression in a SIE dependent manner. GH-induced association of the GHR-JAK2 complex leads to activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway. Activated MAPKs ERK1 and ERK2 (Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases) phosphorylate a TCF (e.g. Elk1), which leads to transcriptional activation via the SRE. GH may also regulate the phosphorylation of SRF via p90RSK (p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase) (Ref.6). GH has also been reported to stimulate the synthesis and binding of the transcription factors CEBP-Beta (CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein-Beta) and CEBP-Delta, which have been implicated in cell differentiation and proliferation. GH-dependent MAPK activation plays a role in the regulation of nuclear relocalization of C/EBP-Beta.

The actions of human GH are are also achieved through the stimulation of IGF (IGF1 and IGF2) production in target tissues. GHR dimmerization activates the synthesis and secretion of IGF1. The IGFs circulate, bound to specific IGFBPs (IGF Binding Proteins) and work in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine fashion by binding to specific receptors (Ref.2). In plasma, IGF1 binds to the soluble IGF1R (IGF1 Receptor). GH regulates the activity of IGF1 by increasing the production of binding proteins (specifically IGFBP-3 and another important protein called the acid-labile subunit) that increase the half-life of IGF1 from minutes to hours. Circulating proteases then act to break up the binding protein/hormone complex thereby releasing the IGF1 in a controlled fashion over time. GH may even cause target tissues to produce IGFBP3 increasing its effectiveness locally. At target cells, this complex activates signal-transduction pathways that result in the mitogenic and anabolic responses that lead to growth (Ref.5).

Factors like SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) and SHP1 (SH2-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-1) play an important role in the down regulation of signaling by GH. During a GH response, SHP1 translocates to the nucleus and associates with phosphorylated STAT5, suggesting that it can participate in the dephosphorylation of nuclear STAT5. At the same time, SHP1 is also associated with JAK2 and appears to be involved in the attenuation of GH-activated JAK activity (Ref.5). GH is an anabolic hormone that induces positive nitrogen balance in intact animals and protein synthesis in muscle. At all ages, treatment of humans with human GH increases muscle size in GH-deficient individuals. Growth hormone enhances amino acid uptake into skeletal muscle, suggesting that this tissue is a primary target of the physiological effects of GH. The regulation of GH secretion and its action at target tissues is believed to be the most fundamental determinant of body size. While other growth factors have been discovered, GH seems to fit the role of the primary growth hormone. GH is regulated by nutrition and by the hormonal and genetic milieu that controls the timing and rate of growth. Exercise in humans is a well-known provocative stimulus for GH release. Growth hormone exerts lipolytic effects on fat and muscle, and circulating free fatty acids and glycerol levels rise following acute administration of GH. Many of the effects of GH on growth and metabolism are actually mediated indirectly via control of the synthesis of other growth factors (Ref.1).



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3 The Prolactin Hormone on Wed Jul 02, 2014 8:55 pm

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The Prolactin Hormone

This hormone is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It is secreted when necessary by the pituitary gland on receiving a neural stimulation from the hypothalamus. Its functions include contracting the milk channels. Other functions of the oxytocin hormone in the production of mother's milk

Oxytocin hormone is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. At the correct time, a nerve signal is sent out by the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland causing it to secrete this hormone. Its purpose is to ensure the contraction of the milk channels and uterine muscles when the time of birth approaches. In this way, it facilitates the birth process.

In addition to its function in the production of mother's milk, the oxytocin hormone has another duty. It ensures the contraction of the muscles of the uterus at the time of birth to facilitate the birth process. During labor, the production of oxytocin quickly increases. At the same time, the uterine muscle develops a remarkable sensitivity to the oxytocin hormone.6 During the birth process, some women are given an injection of oxytocin to help relieve the pain and to speed the birth process.

In order for the production of oxytocin to occur normally, the cells which make up the hypothalamus must be aware of all the elements involved in the birth process that happen a great distance from them. They must know that birth is a difficult process and that they must contract the uterine muscles to push the baby out. Moreover, they must know that a chemical production is necessary for the contraction of the uterine muscles to occur, and they must know the correct formula.

The One Who places the production plan of the oxytocin hormone in the genes of the hypothalamus cells, Who creates the new baby about to come into the world, the mother, the mother's womb, and the hypothalamus cells is God.

THE SYSTEM THAT REGULATES THE AMOUNT OF FLUID IN THE BLOOD:
THE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE


Do you know how much fluid there must be in your body to be healthy? Can you calculate how many grams of fluid you take in from the food you eat and the liquids you drink every day? Or can you determine how much of this fluid you must discharge from your body in the same period of time? Can you figure out how many grams of fluid there are in your blood every second of the day, or the level of fluid in your body tissues, or your blood pressure?


Water is the compound that the human body needs most. If the body loses only about 10% of its water, it cannot survive. But a person can never measure the amount of water present in his body or take measures to affect it, but his body already has a flawless system to undertake this duty on his behalf.
If the duty of calculating these numbers were given to each human being, he would be required to devote all his time to this job. This is very important because the human body must be prevented from losing too much fluid. If the fluid loss reached around ten per cent of the body's normal fluid level, death would result.

But a person does not need to measure the amount of fluid in his own body because his body has a system that regulates and orders the fluid level. If you were to examine the details of this system, you would encounter a surprising wonder of engineering and planning.

Loss of body fluid results from sweating or not drinking enough water. If there were no special system in our bodies, no matter how low the density of blood fluids might fall, you would not know it and would eventually die. How is the decrease in the amount of blood fluid sensed and with what measures is it corrected?

There are special sensors in the hypothalamus area of the brain called osmoreceptors. These sensors measure the amount of fluid in your blood at every moment you are alive. If they determine that the amount of fluid in the blood has fallen, they immediately react.


Water and waste products are expelled from the body through the kidneys, intestines, lungs, liver and skin.
If we substitute a human being in the place of one of these receptors in the hypothalamus, this person would have to measure the amount of fluid in the blood for 24 hours without tiring and without sleeping for all his life. Of course, it is impossible for a human being to carry out such a duty, yet a group of cells devotes its whole life to calculating the amount of fluid in the blood. This shows that this group of cells is performing a function that has been given to it.

Let us assume that the amount of water in blood has dropped. Under this circumstance, what would a human being who was put in the place of these receptor cells have to do? If it were impossible to take a drink of water, how would you raise the amount of fluid in the blood?

If you had no training in biology, it may not enter your mind to purify the water molecules in the urine and send them back to the blood. Even if such an idea came to your mind, you would not know how to achieve this.

At the moment the sensor cells in the hypothalamus detect a fall in the fluid level of the blood, they react with great ingenuity. They make use of a very special messenger hormone (the antidiuretic hormone, ADH) reserved in the pituitary gland. This message is written for the cells surrounding the millions of microscopic tubules in the kidneys. A message is sent to these cells, ordering them to keep back the water molecules in the urine.

At this point, several questions come to mind:

How do cells located in the pituitary gland have the intelligence to send orders to kidney cells far distant from themselves and which they have never seen before? How can they write a message that the kidney cells will understand and obey?

Thanks to this communication system, they purify a great number of water molecules in the urine and mix them with the blood again. As a result, the amount of urine is reduced and fluid in the body is restored to a certain level.

In the case that we have drunk too much water, the reverse operation is put into effect. When the fluid level of the blood increases, the sensors in the hypothalamus slow down the release of the ADH hormone. When this happens, the absorption of fluid in the kidneys is decreased. The amount of urine increases and fluid level in the blood is held in balance.

A characteristic of the ADH hormone is its ability to contract the blood vessels to cause an increase in blood pressure. This is a very well designed security assurance system and another proof of the fact that human beings are specially created. In order for such a security system to function, a comprehensive plan has been put into effect. In the upper chambers of the heart and in the veins coming into the heart, special devices have been placed to measure the pressure of the blood. The cables (nerves) coming from these devices are connected to the pituitary gland. When blood pressure is normal, these devices are stimulated and continuously send electrical impulses to the pituitary gland to prevent the release of the ADH hormone.8

This system resembles an alarm system that uses infrared rays. If a thief unknowingly comes into contact with one of these rays, the connection between a source of light and a receiver is broken and an alarm sounds.

As in this example, when the pituitary receives a signal from the receptors in the heart and veins, it means that all is well.

In the case of heavy bleeding, a person loses a lot of blood, and the amount of blood in the veins decreases. As a result, the blood pressure falls, a very dangerous condition.

When blood pressures falls, the signal sent to the pituitary gland from the receptors in the heart and the veins is broken, causing the pituitary gland to go into a state of alarm and secrete the ADH hormone. The ADH hormone immediately causes the muscles around the veins to contract, thus raising the blood pressure. In order to understand this very complex, interrelated and multifaceted system, a few details are necessary.

1. How do the hypothalamus cells, which produce the ADH hormone, know the structure of the cells that surround the veins, cells that are located at a great distance from them?

2. How do they know that these muscles must contract in order for blood pressure to increase?

3. How is it that these cells can produce the chemical formula to bring about this contraction?

4. Where did the neural "transmission cables" of this communication network between the heart and the pituitary gland to produce such a perfect alarm system come from?

Certainly, we have here a real design which shows that human beings did not come into being by the unconscious operation involving chance, but as the result of a perfect act of creation. The evolutionists' claim that the body's communication and alarm system is the result of chance and necessity, that the cells themselves contrived, designed, and constructed this system is contrary to reason. Such a claim is like asserting that a pile of cement, bricks and electrical cable were unloaded on a plot of land and three storms happened: as a result of the first, these building materials formed a skyscraper; after the second, they furnished the skyscraper with an electrical system; and after the third, they put a perfect security system in the building. No one with common sense would accept such an illogical claim. But the evolutionists make even more illogical assertions. Evolutionists, who dogmatically insist on not accepting the existence of God, defend the theory of evolution without considering how contrary to reason their denials are.

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Hormones That Are Able to Regulate Time and Produce the  Differences Between the Sexes

We all have a biological clock within us-this expresses the idea that there are a number of micro-clocks in various regions of our bodies programmed to regulate time. One of these micro-clocks is located in the hypothalamus area of the brain.9


Human beings go through a period of adolescence between childhood and adulthood when the body experiences many definite changes. Girls enter adolescence between the ages of eight and fourteen, boys between the ages of ten and sixteen.

This clock that never goes wrong has been placed in the bodies of the countless human beings that have been created until today. How can this clock understand without error that a person has come into adolescence?

One hypothalamus area of the brain has been waiting for years since the time of birth to perform its very special function. At just the right time, that is, when the time to pass from childhood to adolescence has come, an alarm clock goes off in the hypothalamus. This indicates that the hypothalamus must begin a new job.

Actually, scientists use the comparison to a clock to describe this process in a more understandable way. Of course, there is no clock in the hypothalamus, but comparing it to a clock is the best way to describe how cells wait for years to go into action at just the right time.

How do the cells that make up the hypothalamus know that the right time has come? The scientific world has not yet been able to explain how a small piece of flesh can act in such a conscious and programmed way.10 It is likely that the details of this system will be understood as years go on, and when they are understood, they will provide another proof of the perfection of God's creation.

With the sounding of the alarm, the hypothalamus secretes the special GnRH hormone. This hormone sends a command to the pituitary gland to secrete two hormones, the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and the Luteinizing Hormone (LH).

These two hormones have very special functions and marvelous abilities. Each one begins the process of physical differentiation and development of the male and female body. The FSH and the LH hormones have been designed to effect the areas in which this change will occur and they act as if they knew very well what they have to do.


Because of its "hidden" clock, the brain's hypothalamus area "understands" when a person's adolescence has started. And this clock operates in every human being without breaking down or stopping.
In the female body, the FSH hormone causes the maturation and development of eggs in the ovaries and ensures the secretion of the very important estrogen hormones by this area.

The FSH hormone is secreted according to the same formula in the male body, but here it has totally different effects; it stimulates the cells in the testes and initiates the production of sperm.

In the female body, the LH hormone ensures that the maturating egg is released and that another hormone called progesterone is secreted.

LH performs a different function in the male body. It stimulates a special group of cells in the testes called the leydig cells and ensures the secretion of testosterone.

It is very interesting to think that these hormones are produced according to the same formula in the bodies of each of the sexes and that in each case the effects are totally different. How do the hormones know the difference between the male and the female body? How does it happen that a hormone composed according to one formula causes the production of testosterone in the male and progesterone in the female? How can hormones of the same formula recognize the male body on the one hand, and ensure the development of the male voice and musculature, and, on the other hand, how can they know the chemistry and special qualities of the female body and make the changes accordingly? Who placed this wonderful genetic program in the cells according to which one hormone has different effects and causes the development of the different sexes?



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5 The Rhythm of Life: The Thyroid Gland on Wed Jul 02, 2014 9:04 pm

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The Rhythm of Life: The Thyroid Gland

Today in factories and modern industrial plants, the most important thing on the agenda is "productivity." Every department of a factory must work with ideal speed but it is not enough that the individual units work to the ideal speed by themselves. Every unit must work in harmony with the others. If one unit thinks that there is an advantage in working on its own faster than the others, this could cause harm rather than benefit. For this reason, industrial engineers and strategic planners work in factories and plants to put planning into place and ensure productivity.

Imagine a factory that produces millions of different products, operates twenty-four hours a day without a break, and has 100 trillion workers. No doubt, an army of engineers and business planners would be required in this factory to formulate a productivity plan and determine how quickly each group of workers will work must productively.

In real life there exists such a factory, but engineers and business administrators do not work in it. The work is done by a small set of cells and the hormones that they secrete.

This factory is, of course, the human body and what is responsible for the productivity of this factory is

the thyroid gland.




With the help of the thyroxine hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, 100 trillion cells are individually organized to function according to a certain rhythm and at a certain rate of speed. This hormone determines how quickly nutrients are converted into energy and how efficiently food burns in the body.


Children especially have a high rate of metabolism. This is because they obtain a higher energy production from the nutrients in their cells. It is the thyroxine hormone that determines and supervises the speed at which the body cells work.
For example, most young people, especially those still in the process of growth, have a very high rate of metabolism, and the food they consume is quickly turned into energy. In other words, the nutrients they eat are quickly burned so that they do not gain weight easily. Generally, as people grow older, there is no difference in their appetite but, if they eat the same amount of food as when they were younger, they gain weight. The reason for this is that, when they were younger, the body cells produce energy from their food at a higher rate. When a person gets older, the energy produced by the cells from the burning of nutrients is lower and unburned food is stored in the body as fat.

If you were a factory owner, you would work to ensure that your employees worked in the most productive manner and, at the same time, you would make sure that they paid attention to their own health and safety. If the employees in one department of your factory worked more slowly than they should, it would not be good for the factory's general production. If there is no foreman to tell the workers what job they must do and how quickly they must do it, production will suffer.

The same thing happens in our bodies. If there were no foreman to tell your cells how quickly they must work, the result would cause the activity of the cells to slow down, the food you ate would turn to fat, you would not have enough energy to raise your arm, and your whole body would come to the point of exhaustion. When too little thyroxine hormone is secreted, a condition called hypothyroidism occurs which is characterized by these symptoms

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6 One Hundred Trillion Micro-Heaters on Thu Jul 03, 2014 11:58 am

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One Hundred Trillion Micro-Heaters


Cells, which act as micro-heaters, supply the heat needed by our bodies.

In order for you to be able to read this page, your body temperature must be at a certain level. If this temperature falls or rises too much, you will die. For this reason, some systems that keep the body temperature at a definite level have been created and placed within the human body.

When and how did these heaters arise ?

One of these remarkable systems is the thyroxine hormone.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_hormone

The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. Iodine is necessary for the production of T3 and T4. A deficiency of iodine leads to decreased production of T3 and T4, enlarges the thyroid tissue and will cause the disease known as simple goitre. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3.[1] The ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is roughly 20 to 1. T4 is converted to the active T3 (three to four times more potent than T4) within cells by deiodinases (5'-iodinase). These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a). All three isoforms of the deiodinases are selenium-containing enzymes, thus dietary selenium is essential for T3 production.


The thyroid system of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4.[2]




Synthesis of the thyroid hormones, as seen on an individual thyroid follicular cell:[3]
- Thyroglobulin is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and follows the secretory pathway to enter the colloid in the lumen of the thyroid follicle by exocytosis.
- Meanwhile, a sodium-iodide (Na/I) symporter pumps iodide (I-) actively into the cell, which previously has crossed the endothelium by largely unknown mechanisms.
- This iodide enters the follicular lumen from the cytoplasm by the transporter pendrin, in a purportedly passive manner.[4]
- In the colloid, iodide (I-) is oxidized to iodine (I0) by an enzyme called thyroid peroxidase.
- Iodine (I0) is very reactive and iodinates the thyroglobulin at tyrosyl residues in its protein chain (in total containing approximately 120 tyrosyl residues).
- In conjugation, adjacent tyrosyl residues are paired together.
- Thyroglobulin binds the megalin receptor for endocytosis back into the follicular cell.
- Proteolysis by various proteases liberates thyroxine and triiodothyronine molecules, which enter the blood by largely unknown mechanisms.


The body reaches a certain temperature as the result of the activities of its 100 trillion cells. We can compare these cells to micro-heaters, and the wonderful molecule that controls how much heat each micro-heater must produce is the thyroxine hormone.

It is in itself a wonder that cells produce a certain amount of heat as they do their work and that the total amount of heat produced by the 100 trillion cells is exactly the amount that is required for human beings to survive. Moreover, the thyroxine molecules know how much heat the cells must produce. Together with all of this, the fact that the cells know how they can act on the metabolism and raise the body's temperature is one more wonder of creation.

A DELICATE CONTROL MECHANISM

A highly advanced and organized system has been created to regulate the amount of thyroxine secreted. The secretion of thyroxine occurs again as a result of a chain of command of a set of unconscious cells organized in a highly disciplined hierarchy.

When thyroxine is needed, the brain of the hormonal system-the hypothalamus-sends a command (the TRH-Thyroid-releasing Hormone) to the conductor of the hormonal system orchestra (the pituitary gland). When it receives the command, the pituitary gland understands that the thyroid gland must be activated and immediately sends a command (the TSH-Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) to the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland, as the last point in this chain of command, immediately secretes thyroxine in compliance and distributes it throughout the whole body by way of the blood.

How is the amount of this hormone that needs to be secreted determined? How is it that, except in cases of illness, neither more nor less of this hormone than is needed is secreted?

The amount of thyroxine secreted is determined by a special system created by the great artistry of God. This system is based on two separate, negative feedback mechanisms and is an example of an incomparable wonder of engineering design.

When the amount of thyroxine in the blood rises above normal, the thyroxine hormone produces a very interesting effect on the pituitary gland and sometimes directly on the hypothalamus: it reduces the sensitivity of the pituitary gland to the TRH hormone.

The function of the TRH hormone is to activate the pituitary gland to send a command (the TSH hormone) to the thyroid gland. This command is the second point on the chain of command in the production of the thyroxine hormone.

The system is so intricately designed that the excess thyroxine takes highly intelligent measures so that the sources in which it is itself produced do not make too much, and it interferes with and severes the chain of command established for its own production. By this means, when the thyroxine in the blood rises above normal, the production of thyroxine is automatically curtained.

We can understand this more easily with some examples: imagine that small intelligent machines were made in a factory. These machines were made in three stages:

1. First stage: computer A sends a production command to computer B.

2. Second stage: computer B translates this command into another language and sends it to computer C.

3. Third stage: computer C begins to produce the desired machines with the help of a robot.

Suddenly, production exceeds what is required and there are more machines in stock than are needed. At this stage, one section of the machines in stock goes to computer B and removes the cable connecting computer B with computer A. Now, computer B cannot receive a command from computer A. Since the production command cannot reach computer C, production ceases and the computers in stock last until the supply runs out. When the stock runs low, the cable connecting computer A with computer B is again attached by the machines and production resumes.

If such machines were made which could supervise their own production and that of the machines that produce them so intelligently, a revolution in industry and technology would be the result. In every human being, there exists such a fantastic system of production occurring every minute.

A second system also determines the amount of thyroxine produced. An increase in the amount of thyroxine affects the cells in the hypothalamus. These cells reduce the production of TRH and, therefore, the amount of TSH secreted in the pituitary gland is reduced. By this way, the production of thyroxine is slowed down.

Using the above factory example, it is useful to examine this second system. The effect of the thyroxine on the hypothalamus and its curtailment of the production of TSH can be compared to the machines produced in our imaginary factory that slow down the information flow from that computer. Not only the communication between computer A and computer B is cut, but computer A is also slowed down, thus being prevented from sending a command to computer B.

When the amount of thyroxine in the blood is reduced, the system works in the reverse direction. More commands are sent from computer A and the capacity of computer B to receive these commands is increased. As a result, the hypothalamus secretes more TRH hormone, the pituitary gland becomes more sensitive to TRH, and raises the production of the TSH hormone. In this way, more thyroxine is produced and secreted.16

How does the thyroxine hormone know that the chain of command must be broken in order to stop its production? How do the cells in the hypothalamus know that, when the level of thyroxine is high, its secretion must be stopped and, when it is low, its secretion must be increased? How did this flawless system come into being?

To think that this intricately planned system came to be by time, chance, and natural law is more outside the realm of sound thinking than to think that a computer or a television could come into being by a similar process. In order for this system to be able to function, hundreds of specially designed molecular sized structures (which we have not described in detail) are required. It is a clear fact that this system was created by a supreme intelligence, that is, by God.

FOUR OUT OF TEN THOUSAND MOLECULES

The amount of thyroxine secreted is determined by the amazing system we have described above. But together with all this, there is another remarkable system that keeps the level of thyroxine in the blood stable in times of crisis.

Thyroxine molecules are secreted by the thyroid gland into the blood and must soon become attached to molecules specially designed to transport them in the blood. While they are attached to this molecule, they cannot perform their function. Of the thousands of thyroxine molecules, only a few freely circulate in the blood. It is only about four out of ten thousand thyroxine molecules that affect the metabolic speed of the cells.17

After the free thyroxine molecules enter the target cells, other thyroxine molecules that detach from their carrier molecules take their place. The carrier molecules serve as a storage reservoir to ensure that enough thyroxine is ready when needed.

We have already seen how delicately the balance of the amount of thyroxine required to affect the cells is adjusted and the medical problems that can result if the amount of thyroxine rises or falls. This delicate balance involves a proportion of four free to ten thousand bound thyroxine molecules. In the light of this, these questions must be asked:

Who counted these trillions of molecules and decided that only close to four out of ten thousand are needed for the health of human beings? Who calculated that nine thousand nine hundred ninety-six molecules out of every ten thousand molecules must stand by idly? Who foresees that there will be a reduction of the number of these four molecules out of every ten thousand molecules roaming in the veins, and releases more molecules? Who made this incredible mathematical calculation and created this system that has existed in every human ever born?

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7 Re: Endocrine System on Fri Jul 04, 2014 7:00 am

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The Sensitive Calcium-Meters

The amount of calcium in the blood is a very important factor in human survival. In order for a human to survive, he needs to not only breathe and drink water, but he must also have a certain amount of calcium in his blood. If the level of calcium in the blood falls below what is required, death will result. Now, let us think of this hypothetical example: A container in front of you contains one liter of blood. This blood is to be transfused into a patient waiting for an operation. It has been discovered that there is a deficiency of calcium in this blood, but the amount of the deficiency has not been determined. You are asked to make a guess and supply the deficiency. You have been given a large container of powdered calcium to use.

How would you make this decision?

First, you would have to measure the amount of calcium in the blood in front of you. But you would need such advanced technological tools that you would have neither the time nor the opportunity to do it. In this situation, you would be completely helpless. The fact that you are unable to measure the amount of calcium in the blood in front of you may result in the patient's death.

Let us change our example slightly: Now you are given one liter of blood which contains no calcium, and you have to add the right amount of it. How many spoonfuls of calcium would you take from the container and add to the blood? What is the correct amount of this vital substance that must be added to one liter of blood?

You will never encounter this situation; the example has been given just to emphasize the importance of the amount of calcium in the blood. If a liter of blood were placed before you containing no calcium, the amount of calcium you would have to mix with it would be one tenth of a gram. In the five liters of blood in your body, there needs to be a total of only half a gram of calcium. If there is any more or less than this, serious illness or even death may result. Clearly, the human body has been created in a marvelously delicate balance. A person weighing 80 kilos requires only half a gram of calcium circulating in his blood-any more or less, and he will die.

Calcium ensures the operation of several vital functions in our bodies. Without calcium, the blood would not clot and a person could die from blood loss from to a small wound or even a scratch. Calcium also plays an important role in the transmission of nerve impulses. If nerve impulse transmissions were severed, death would result. Calcium also ensures that the muscles function and that the bones are healthy. The body of an adult person contains up to two kilograms of calcium, and of this, ninety-nine per cent is stored in the bones. The remainder is used in functions relative to body metabolism. Approximately 0.5 grams of calcium in the blood is sufficient for bodily functions.

As we said before, in 100 milliliters of blood, there is 10 milligrams of calcium-the equivalent of 0.1 gram in a liter. If the proportion falls from 10 mg. to 6-7 mg. (the total amount of calcium in the blood falls by 0.2 grams), tetany occurs, characterized by symptoms of painful muscle contractions and convulsions. These contractions happen first in the heart muscles and the muscles of the respiratory tract. The irregular contraction of these muscles makes the heart beat erratic and inhibits the respiratory function. Without treatment, the patient's heart will stop (or he will not be able to breathe). In either case, death results. As we can see, in order for such vital functions as heart beat and respiration to occur, only half a gram of calcium is needed.

If the amount of calcium in the blood increases to 12 mg. in 100 ml. (that is, if the total amount of calcium in the blood increases by one tenth of a gram), kidney stones could develop, the activity of the nervous system reflex could slow down, and the muscles could atrophy and (as a result) lose their strength. When the amount of calcium rises to 17 mg. per 100 ml. of blood, calcium phosphate spreads to every part of the body and poisons it.19 The fact that the human body is so dependent on a substance (and that this substance is used in several of this body's functions) demonstrates two important points: that human beings are created according to a wonderful plan.

After we have seen the importance of the amount of calcium in the blood, this question inevitably comes to mind: what is the mechanism that determines this amount that is so vital for life? The answer to this question reveals another wonder of creation. Buried inside the thyroid gland is another hormonal gland called

the parathyroid

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parathyroid_gland

The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, variably located on the back of the thyroid gland, although considerable variation exists. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin (one of the hormones made by the thyroid gland) have key roles in regulating of the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones.
The parathyroid glands share a similar blood supply, venous drainage, and lymphatic drainage to the thyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are derived from the epithelial lining of the third and fourth branchial pouchs, with the superior glands arising from the fourth pouch, and the inferior glands arising form the higher third pouch. The relative position of the inferior and superior glands, which are named according to their final location, changes because of the migration of embryological tissues.
Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, characterised by alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism, are states of surplus or insufficient parathyroid function.






In order to ensure the balance of calcium in the body, this gland, working cooperatively with others, puts a highly intelligent plan into effect. The only function of the parathyroid is to measure how much calcium there is in our blood; it does this day and night throughout our whole lives, to keep the proportion of calcium at the ideal level

Through the agency of a specially designed hormone that it produces (parathormone), the parathyroid regulates the level of calcium in the blood. If the level of calcium in the blood drops, it immediately secretes parathormone.20 This demonstrates a very important point: at the beginning of this section we asked whether you could determine the amount of calcium in a container of blood placed in front of you. We determined that, without laboratory devices specially designed for this task, you would not be able to succeed. Yet the tiny parathyroid can make a calculation that humans cannot do except in a laboratory. The cells that compose the parathyroid gland not only produce a hormone, but they also make measurements relative to the place where the hormone will be used.

How does a cell pick out the calcium atoms in the river of blood flowing in front of it? How can cells without eyes, ears or hands recognize calcium atoms among the millions of kinds of other substances in the blood such as salt, glucose, fat, amino acids, proteins, hormones, enzymes, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, nitrogenous waste, sodium, potassium,

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8 Re: Endocrine System on Fri Jul 04, 2014 12:37 pm

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Taking the Necessary Steps

Put yourself for a moment in the place of the cells that measure the amount of calcium. Imagine that your only job throughout your whole life, day and night, without stopping, sleeping or resting, is to calculate the amount of calcium in the blood. This will give you a better idea of the importance of the wonderful work these cells do.

If the parathyroid cells conclude as a result of their measurement that the amount of calcium has fallen too low, they immediately secrete parathormone. At this stage, the cells demonstrate another conscious activity: They "understand" that the level of calcium has fallen and take appropriate action to restore the deficiency.

Put yourself in the place of the parathyroid cells and think: If you were aware that the calcium level in the blood had decreased, what remedy would you use to increase the level of calcium?

To answer this question you would have to be a scientist with every means at your disposal to investigate the human body. If people had no knowledge about calcium in the body, it would be necessary to do years of research and receive assistance from the best biochemists in the world. There would be only one purpose for this effort-to find sources of calcium that could be used in the body.

Finally, at the end of your research you would learn that there is a great amount of calcium stored in the bones and that some calcium leaves the body in the urine. You would learn that calcium comes into the body from food through the intestines.

In the light of this, the three measures you could take to increase blood calcium are:

1. Borrow some of calcium from the bones.

2. Find a way to recover the calcium excreted in the urine.

3. Arrange to have more calcium taken from the food.

But each one of these functions takes us into a different field of expertise.

Before deciding on the first choice, you would have to persuade the bone cells to lend you a portion of the calcium they have stored in the bones. The bone cells (osteocytes) do not want to lose any of the calcium, which is very important to the bones. However, you must find a chemical formula that will allow the bone cell to release some of its stored calcium into the blood. In order to find this formula, you will have to be aware of all the chemical secrets of the bone cells down to the smallest detail and also the process by which the calcium is stored. Then you will have to devise a molecular formula to reverse this process. Moreover, you will have to obtain in a moment all the information pertinent to the inner structure of cells whose secrets human beings have been trying to discover for a hundred years. At the end of your lengthy researches, you will find the miraculous formula to persuade the bone cells to liberate some calcium-that formula is parathormone. (See figure 1)

But there are still other things you have to do. You must find two other formulas to ensure that the second and third functions are carried out.

To make the second choice feasible, you must persuade the cells in the kidneys to conserve the calcium in the urine and mix it with the blood again. Normally, there is no necessity for these cells to search for calcium in the urine. This time you must solve all the mysteries in the inner workings of kidney cells, which are quite different from bone cells. Then, you must find one molecule in an endless combination of molecules that can activate the kidney cells to find calcium in the urine. Finally, if you manage to produce this special formula, you will have witnessed one of the greatest wonders in the world, and the formula you obtain is exactly the same as the first formula you discovered-parathormone. Molecules having the same formula are able to make cells perform two totally different functions, a wonder that cannot be explained by the operation of evolution.

Now there remains a third thing you must do. You must get the body to retain more calcium from the food that it consumes.The mixing of the calcium in the food you eat with the blood occurs in the small intestine, but in order for the calcium to be reabsorbed, the intestinal cells need "activated vitamin D." Here, a major problem arises, because the vitamin D you obtain through your food is inactive. In order for your intestines to absorb more calcium (therefore, to increase the amount of it in the blood), this problem must be solved. A special molecule must exist that will change the chemical make up of inactivated vitamin D and activate it. Again, you must do much research and many experiments in order to design a special molecule that will activate the vitamin D. At the end of your research, you will find the formula of the molecule needed to activate the vitamin D (and to ensure the absorption of calcium by the cells of the intestine) is the same as the formula of parathormone.

Think about this: Three different unrelated ways have been discovered to increase the amount of calcium in the blood, but the key to causing these three different systems to function is the same-this key alters the operation of the three systems. What is more surprising is that, when the operation of these three systems (with their very different structures and ways of functioning) is changed, the result is the same-the amount of calcium in the blood increases.

The fact that three different systems begin to work with the same key toward the same goal is a proof of the perfection and incomparable harmony of God's creation.

When the amount of calcium in the blood falls, the parathyroid cells demonstrate an incredible awareness. Using the appropriate key to alter the operation of each of the three systems, they ingeniously produce one molecule-parathormone.

In this way, they raise the level of calcium in the blood by ensuring that the bone cells release calcium, that the kidney cells extract more calcium from the urine, and that vitamin D is activated so that the digestive system can obtain more calcium.

How did the parathyroid cells find this ingenious formula? How do they know that this molecule will affect the bones, the kidneys and activate vitamin D? How is it that in the countless numbers of people who have lived in the course of history, the parathyroid has managed (except in cases of illness) to produce the right formula? How do the parathyroid cells know that the bones store calcium, that there is calcium in the urine that would be wasted, and that the cells of the small intestine need activated vitamin D to absorb calcium? How do they come up with the formula to make these three systems function? How do unconscious cells perform this feat of intelligence, which human beings could never manage?

Surely, the One Who manifests this intelligent design displayed in cells, Who creates cells, the calcium molecule and human beings from nothing, Who creates human beings in such a way that they need calcium, and Who also provides for this need with a perfect system is God, the Lord of the heavens and the Earth and of all that is in between.

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9 Re: Endocrine System on Sun Jul 06, 2014 2:35 pm

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The Sugar Factory in our Bodies

If you ate food containing a little more sugar that you needed, a system in your body would go into action to prevent the elevation of the proportion of sugar in your blood.

1. First, the pancreas cells would find and distinguish the sugar molecules from among all the millions of other molecules in your blood. Moreover, they would count the sugar molecules to decide if the number were too high or too low. Amazingly, cells too small for the eye to see, without eyes, hands, or a brain know the correct proportion of sugar molecules in a fluid.

2. If the pancreas cells determine that there is more sugar in the blood than required, they decide to store the excess. But they themselves do not do the storing; they have other cells, located far away, to do this job.

3. These distant cells, unless a command to the contrary comes to them, have no desire to store sugar. But the pancreas cells send a hormone to these cells commanding them to store sugar. The formula of this hormone, called insulin, has been coded in the DNA of the pancreas cells from the moment they come into being.

4. Special enzymes in the pancreas cells (worker proteins) read this formula and produce insulin accordingly. In this production hundreds of individual enzymes perform a different function.

5. The insulin produced reaches the target cell by the most reliable and rapid communications network-the bloodstream.

6. The various cells that read the command to store sugar written in the insulin hormone obeys it unconditionally. As a result, the doors that permit sugar molecules to enter the cells are opened.

7. But these doors do not open randomly. The reservoir molecules distinguish sugar molecules from among all the hundreds of other molecule types in the blood; they intercept them and lock them inside themselves.

8. The cells always obey the commands sent to them. They do not misunderstand this command and try to intercept the wrong material, or to store more sugar than is necessary. They work with great discipline and effort.

When you drink some tea with too much sugar, this remarkable system goes into action and stores the excess sugar in your body. If this system did not function, the level of sugar in your blood would rapidly increase and you could eventually go into a coma. This wonderful system can even work in reverse when necessary. If the level of sugar in the blood falls below normal, the pancreas cells produce a different hormone called glucagon. Glucagon sends a command to those cells that were storing sugar and causes them to release it to be mixed with the blood. The cells that obey this command release the sugar they had stored.

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