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Theory of Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins » Theory of evolution » Genetic Recombination

Genetic Recombination

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1 Genetic Recombination on Sat Jul 12, 2014 4:48 pm

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Genetic Recombination

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Darwinists are slowly backing away from citing mutations as the genetic mechanism of choice that causes
novel and more complex traits to arise. Genetic Recombination is now more frequently suggested, but they
are still trying to figure out exactly how it works, and what causes it to occur.

There are different types of genetic recombination, but Genetic Recombination during sexual reproduction
(Meiosis) is the ONLY type that can produce an inheritable change in offspring.

What is Genetic Recombination?

It is a “highly complex” and “mysterious” process by which similar (Homologous) segments of genetic
material in chromosomes (strands of DNA) line-up alongside each other and combine their genetic material
by breaking, exchanging, and then reconnecting the segments:

“Although common, genetic recombination is a highly complex process. It involves the alignment of two
homologous DNA strands (the requirement for homology suggests that this occurs through complementary
base-pairing, but this has not been definitively shown), precise breakage of each strand, exchange between
the strands, and sealing of the resulting recombined molecules. This process occurs with a high degree of
accuracy at high frequency in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.”
Scitable Library by Nature Education: Chromosomes and Cytogenetics, “Genetic Recombination,” 2008.
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetic-recombination-514
“Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis is essential for a species’ survival. Therefore, a series of
events unfold during meiosis, including pairing, synapses, and recombination between homologous
chromosomes, to ultimately ensure the successful completion of this task. This review will focus on how the
regulation of crossover recombination events between homologous chromosomes plays a key role in
promoting faithful segregation. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which
crossovers are formed has increased significantly, the mechanisms governing the distribution of crossovers
along meiotic chromosomes remain largely mysterious.”
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK, “Distribution of meiotic recombination events: talking to your
neighbors,” April 19, 2009, Pub Med.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328674
“Homologous recombination is restricted to sequences of low divergence. This is attributed to the
mismatch repairing system (MMR), which does not allow recombination between sequences that are highly
divergent. This acts as a safeguard against recombination between non-homologous sequences that could
result in genome imbalance.”
Department of Biology, University of Crete, Greece, “Homologous Recombination Between Highly Diverged
Mitochondrial Sequences: Examples From Maternally And Paternally Transmitted Genomes,” December 15,
2010, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Oxford Press.
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/01/10/molbev.msr007.short?rss=1
“Unlike most essential cellular processes, recombination events must differ between individuals to maintain
genetic diversity. However, the system cannot be so flexible that it fails to ensure proper segregation of
chromosomes. Having many regulatory steps achieves the goal of allowing some range of events to occur
while ensuring that the number of recombination events does not deviate too much to cause improper
chromosome segregation or non-disjunction.”
Collaborative effort, “Genetic Analysis of Variation in Human Meiotic Recombination,” August 14, 2009, PLOS
Genetics by the Public Library of Congress.
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000648
There are several phases involved in each recombination event during Meiosis I and Meiosis II.

1. Meiosis I creates sperm or egg cells (gametes) within each ‘parent’
2. Meiosis II occurs when an egg is fertilized by a sperm cell. Upon fertilization, a different recombination
process blends the homologous sequences from the sperm and egg chromosome, and then creates an
offspring with the combined DNA.

Go to “Animation: How Meiosis Works” by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.:
http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter28/animation__how_meiosis_works.html

Genetic recombination must first begin with genetic segments being able to “recognize” similar genetic
segments within the other ‘parent’ chromosome. There are no naturalistic explanations for this phenomena:

“Scientists are reporting evidence that intact, double-stranded DNA has the ‘amazing’ ability to recognize
similarities in other DNA strands from a distance. And then like friends with similar interests, the bits of
genetic material hangout or congregate together. The recognition — of similar sequences in DNA’s chemical
subunits — occurs in a way once regarded as impossible, the researchers suggest in a study scheduled for
the Jan. 31 issue of ACS’ Journal of Physical Chemistry B.
Goff S. Baldwin, Sergei Lei kin, John M. Sodden, and Alexei A. Kuibyshev and colleagues say the homology
recognition between sequences of several hundred nucleotides occurs without physical contact or presence of
proteins, factors once regarded as essential for the phenomenon…
‘Amazingly, the forces responsible for the sequence recognition can reach across more than one nanometer
of water separating the surfaces of the nearest neighbor DNA,’ said the authors.”
Journal of the American Chemical Society, “Genetic ‘telepathy’? A bizarre new property of DNA,” January 28,
2008, Phys org.
http://www.physorg.com/print120735315.html
“DNA recombination involves the exchange of genetic material either between multiple chromosomes or
between different regions of the same chromosome. This process is generally mediated by homology; that is,
homologous regions of chromosomes line up in preparation for exchange, and some degree of sequence
identity is required…
As previously described, the enzymes and mechanisms that carry out the process of homologous
recombination are fairly well delineated. Not so well understood is the important question of how
homologous sequences come to be in proximity so that recombination can proceed.”
Suitable Library by Nature Education: Chromosomes and Phylogenetic, “Genetic Recombination,” 2008.
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetic-recombination-514
There are NO naturalistic explanations for the actual process of the “precise breakage of each strand, exchange between the strands, and sealing of the resulting recombined molecules.” (This is a glaring example of a supernatural process, yet evolutionary-based geneticists pass it off as a weird coincidence):

“It involves the alignment of two homologous DNA strands (the requirement for homology suggests that this occurs through complementary base-pairing, but this has not been definitively shown), precise breakage of each strand, exchange between the strands, and sealing of the resulting recombined molecules.”
Scitable Library by Nature Education: Chromosomes and Cytogenetics, “Genetic Recombination,” 2008.
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetic-recombination-514

After the exchange of specific and very localized genetic material between chromosomes, the resulting cells
end up with a blend of both parent’s DNA. Genetic Recombination during Meiosis insures that each
offspring has a unique DNA, versus all organisms within species being identical.

“In this instance, the outcome of recombination is to ensure that each gamete includes both maternally and paternally derived genetic information, such that the resulting offspring will inherit genes from all four of its grandparents, thereby acquiring a maximum amount of genetic diversity.”
Scitable Library by Nature Education: Chromosomes and Cytogenetics, “Genetic Recombination,” 2008.
http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetic-recombination-514

There has yet to be discovered ANY novel feature or more complex traits resulting from Genetic
Recombination during Meiosis. On the contrary, when mismatching (Non-Homologous Recombination)
occurs, it is known to cause “chromosomal abnormalities” which are “the primary cause of miscarriages”:

“Errors in meiotic recombination lead to chromosomal abnormalities including non disjunction; thus cellular
processes must ensure proper meiotic recombination …
Characterization of genetic variants that influence natural variation in meiotic recombination will allow a
better understanding of normal meiotic events as well as non-disjunctions which lead to chromosomal
abnormalities, the primary cause of miscarriages.”
Collaborative effort, “Genetic Analysis of Variation in Human Meiotic Recombination,” August 14, 2009, PLOS
Genetics by the Public Library of Congress.
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000648
“Recent interest in genetic recombination hotspots has been fueled partly by the promise of genome
association studies, which aim to locate the chromosomal regions responsible for genetic diseases. Analyzing
such studies to understand the inheritance of genes associated with disease requires an understanding of
genetic recombination at a very fine scale.”
University of Southern California, “New mathematical model to add rigor to studies of disease genetics and
evolution,” March 19, 2007, Phys org.
http://www.physorg.com/news93521345.html
“Homologous recombination is restricted to sequences of low divergence. This is attributed to the
mismatch repairing system (MMR), which does not allow recombination between sequences that are highly
divergent. This acts as a safeguard against recombination between non-homologous sequences that could
result in genome imbalance.”
Department of Biology, University of Crete, Greece, “Homologous Recombination Between Highly Diverged
Mitochondrial Sequences: Examples From Maternally And Paternally Transmitted Genomes,” December 15,
2010, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Oxford Press.
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/01/10/molbev.msr007.short?rss=1

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