Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins

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information , biosynthesis , analogy with human programming, engeneering, and factory robotic assembly lines

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Genome information, protein synthesis,  the biosynthesis pathways in biologiy, and the analogy of human programming, engeneering, and factory robotic assembly lines

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1987-information-biosynthesis-analogy-with-human-programming-engeneering-and-factory-robotic-assembly-lines

The assembly line has long been considered one of the greatest innovations of the 20th century. It has shaped the industrial world so strongly that businesses that did not adopt the practice soon became extinct, and it was one of the key factors that helped integrate the automobile into American society.

The Early Assembly Line Concept

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, manufactured goods were usually made by hand with individual workers taking expertise in one portion of a product. Each expert would create his own part of the item with simple tools. After each component was crafted they would be brought together to complete the final product. 1)

The drawback of this process was, that human workers had to do the job, which means that each building step along the assembly required the intelligent human presence and  intervention, starting from the human brains commando signal to the physical transformation  through the handy work, in order to manufacture the required part. All along during the whole process, new formation of information in the brain to do each step of the task was required. Errors through missing concentration was high. A high fidelity of copies was not achievable.


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With the start of the Industrial Revolution, machines began to perform work that once required human hands. With the use of machines, factories sprang up to replace small craft shops. This change was made possible by the concept of interchangeable parts, an innovation designed by Eli Whitney.

The concept of interchangeable parts first took ground in the firearms industry. Before this, firearms were made individually by hand, thus each weapon was unique and could not be easily fixed if broken.  

It wasn’t until Eli Whitney introduced the idea in the United States that the practice took off. He was able to use a large unskilled work force and standardized equipment to produce large numbers of identical gun parts at a low cost, within a short amount of time. It also made repair and parts replacement more suitable.

As we can see, there was a evolution towards more advanced building techniques, using standardized parts, which made the assembly process faster, more accurate, precise, cheaper, and the end product more reliable, durable, secure, and better to be fixed. The evolution to arrive at this point required hudge efforts of brain power and invention capacity of many brilliant and skilled specialists, design innovation was achieved through intelligent minds. It was a gradual evolution towards more advanced fabrication processes, requiring time, many ideas did not stick and were discarded as not being useful, some eventually even harmful, all all requiring and  coming from many inventors, engeneers and scientists.

Determined to find a more efficient way to make cars, Henry Ford launched the industry's first moving assembly line at the Highland Park Plant in Detroit, Michigan, in 1913.
The rope-and-pulley system moved the vehicle down a line of workers, each with a specific task. It drastically cut the man-hours required to assemble a Model T -- from 12-and-a-half-hours, down to six.

This was already a big step forward in regard of quality control and fidelity to the source ( or copy of the standard of the original )

Ransom Olds created and patented the assembly line in 1901. Switching to this process allowed his car manufacturing company to increase output by 500 percent in one year. The Curved Dash model was able to be produced at an exceptionally high rate of 20 units per day.

The Oldsmobile brand then had the ability to create a vehicle with a low price, simple assembly and stylish features. Their car was the first to be produced in large quantities. Olds’ assembly line method was the first to be used in the automotive industry and served as the model for which Henry Ford created his own. 2)

The invention of a assembly line was a further hudge step in direction of economy of time and costs, and capacity of mass production. Again: the assembly line came as result of high research efforts, being the invention of highly trained, experienced and intelligent craftsmen,  inventors, engeneers and scientists, which spend hudge amounts of time with experiments, and refinement of a initially rudimentary idea. The assembling of parts in a production line, saving energy and prodution costs, and gaining volume in production, making the products more affordable to the masses, and last not least makig more profit.


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In this picture, a long line of employees place magnets on Model T flywheels, in 1913. So how did the first moving assembly line work? Around 140 workers were stationed along a 150ft line, while a winch and rope dragged the chassis along. The process was broken into 84 separate steps, each performed by a different station of workers. "What was so significant about it, is it really increased the volume they could create cars, and reduce waste," said Bruce Hettle, the company's vice president of North America manufacturing. "It reduced the cost of the vehicle to a point where it could be afforded by much more people -- so it didn't just change manufacturing, but culture and society at the time."


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In the 1940s,  Delmar Harder formed the company's first Automation Department. The pioneering department explored new ways of using autonomous machines on the production line. By the end of the decade, Ford had built a sheetmetal stamping plant in Buffalo, New York, installing hundreds of self-regulating machines. However, workers still played a central role on the assembly line, pictured above1941.

So that was a major evolutionary step, replacing human craftspower partially with machines. These machines were however not fully programmed to do the tasks, but were guided by intervention of operators, which directed the movements with joysticks, controlling and directing cutting sizes, pressures, operationg time etc.  A further important step forward and advance to lower costs, faster production and reliability.


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1961 The first industrial robot (UNIMATE) is installed in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. The assembly line robot is controlled step-by-step by commands stored on a magnetic drum; the 4,000-pound arm sequenced and stacked hot pieces of die-cast metal.

1962 saw the introduction of "Versatran" -- a cylindrical robot, named after the words "versatile" and "transfer." Six of the machines were installed at the Ford factory in Canton, Ohio, each boasting five axes of motion, allowing for 25 individual movements.

Robotics continued to become more sophisticated throughout the decade, and in 1969 American engineer Victor Scheinman invented the "Stanford Arm" -- a six-axis, computer-controlled electronic arm, pictured. It was later used to build a Ford water pump and was a milestone in the design of industrial robots.

After 50 years of the introduction of assembly lines, the first industrial robots entered the manufacturing scence. A milestone in the achievement of homo sapiens, capable of imagination, thought and advanced intelligent design, and example and celebration of what  human minds are capable of invent, create and realise. A machine executing pre programmed  tasks without the continued  intervention of external intelligence, but fully automated, supplied with a stable energy source, and working with high precision and reliability and low costs, transforming coded specified computational information  in physical work and as result useful tools necessary to build complex machines. Being able to take the parts nearby and insert them in the right order, at the right place, with the right fit, or shaping the external structure of a building block to be prepared to  be handed over to a other robot to provide it as part and serve  in a machine as a whole.  


When Henry Ford first introduced mass production techniques to building cars, he followed the simplest possible method by making all of his cars identical right down to the color of paint. While this was very economical, it limited their marketing appeal. As long as Ford was the only mass producer of cars around, that wasn't such a big problem, but General Motors quickly moved in with a variety of models and colors and outcompeted Ford rather quickly. Still, though, even into the sixties each make of cars had only a handfull of models and the available options remained limited. Many desirable features had to be added by hand at the dealership. Since then, there has been a gradual increase in the number of models offered, and the number of available features has increased greatly. Typical 60's models sold hundreds of thousands of copies each year, and there were a limited number of body variations. Today manufacturers try to sell niche models which have anual production runs of only tens of thousands, often with greater variations in body style and avaiable features.

The key to this increased market segmentation has been more flexible assembly lines. Lines in the 60's were really only capable of turning out a single design with a few variations of, for instance, engine types. Even this showed limited flexibility, as the engines were produced on a separate line and fitted into the car fully finished. Modern assembly lines, in contrast, use a mixture of multi-program robots and human workers to achieve tremendously greater variation. A single line can turn out both left and right hand drive cars, models with any of a much wider selection of available features, and even several different models based around a common platform. A company like Saturn can take a customer's order for a car, including body type, features, and color, and program that data into a radio transponder which is placed on the chasis at the beginning of production. As the car reaches each stage in the assembly process, the automated equipment receives information from the transponder and decides what steps are necessary without further outside assistance. That type of flexibility promises only to increase in the future.  





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Large robotic arms at a plant in Michigan, in 2004. In a typical, fairly large plant today, you would see in the area of 500 robots -- and they would do tasks like fastening bits together and moving heavy components from one station to another. But  many many employees doing the lighter assembly work, the quality evaluation, and a lot of the vehicle testing is still required.

information ,  biosynthesis , analogy with human programming, engeneering, and factory robotic assembly lines

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1987-information-biosynthesis-analogy-with-human-programming-engeneering-and-factory-robotic-assembly-lines

The best and most advanced result that  intelligent  and capable  minds, thousands and hundred thousands of the most brilliant and inventive man and woman from all over the globe have been  able to come up with after over one hundred years of technologic advance and progress, of what is considered one of the greatest innovations of the 20th century , is the construction of complex factories with fully automated assembly lines which use  programmed roboters in the manufacturing, assembly, quality control and  packing process of the most diverse products, in the most economic, efficient and effective way possible,  integrating  different facilities and systems, and using advanced statistical methods of quality control, making  from cell phones, to cars, to power plants etc.,  but the constant intervention of intelligent brain power is required to get the whole process done, and obtain  the final products. The distribution of the products is also based on complex distribution networks and companies, which all require hudge efforts of constant human intervention and brainpower.  

Amazingly, the highest degree of manufacturing  performance, excellence, precision, energy efficiency, adaptability to external change, economy, refinement and intelligence of production automatization ( at our scale = 100 )  we find in proceedings adopted by  each cell,  analogous to our factory , and biosynthesis pathways and processes in biology.  A cell uses a complex web of metabolic pathways, each composed of chains of chemical reactions in which the product of one enzyme becomes the substrate of the next. In this maze of pathways, there are many branch points where different enzymes compete for the same substrate. The system is so complex that elaborate controls are required to regulate when and how rapidly each reaction occurs. Like a factory production line, each enzyme catalyzes a specific reaction, using the product of the upstream enzyme, and passing the result to the downstream enzyme. 



If just one of the enzymes is not present or otherwise not functioning then the entire process doesn’t work. We now know that nearly every major process in a cell is carried out by assemblies of 10 or more protein molecules. And, as it carries out its biological functions, each of these protein assemblies interacts with several other large complexes of proteins. Indeed, the entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines, each of which is composed of a set of large protein machines.Cells adopt highest advanced Mass-Craft production techniques , which yeald products with the ability of high adaptability to the environment ( micro evolution ) while being produced with high efficiency of production, advanced error checking mechanisms, low energy consumption and automatization, and so being generally being  far far more advanced, complex,  better structured and organized in every aspect, than the most advanced robotic assembly facility ever created by man. Unlike our own pseudo-automated assembly plants, where external controls are being continually applied, the cell's manufacturing capability is entirely self-regulated . . . . I advocate that this fact is strong evidence of a planning, super intelligent mind, which conceptualized and created  life right from scratch.

Considerations of the planning of the layout of a assembly line facility.

Important considerations for a high economic,  effective and proper material flow are required and must be considered, thought and brought in when planning the concepts and layout design of a new factory assembly line, as for example maximal  flexibility in the line for demand and supply fluctuation,  planning  deep enough to answer all possible aspects of a new line to get max efficiency afterwards.   There should be simple material delivery routes and pathways throughout the facility that connect the processes. Also, there needs to be a plan for flexbility and changes, since volumes and demand are variable. Awareness of the many factors involved right in the planning process of the factory is key. Right-sized equipment and facilities must be planned and considered as well. All equipment and facilities should be designed to the demand rate or takt timeProjects and facility designs  that do not take these considerations in account,  start out great, but quickly bog down in unresolved issues, lack of consensus, confusion and delay.  
3)

Denton, p. 329.

We would see [in cells] that nearly every feature of our own advanced machines had its analogue in the cell: artificial languages and their decoding systems, memory banks for information storage and retrieval, elegant control systems regulating the automated assembly of parts and components, error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control, assembly processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction. In fact, so deep would be the feeling of deja-vu, so persuasive the analogy, that much of the terminology we would use to describe this fascinating molecular reality would be borrowed from the world of late twentieth-century technology.
    “What we would be witnessing would be an object resembling an immense automated factory, a factory larger than a city and carrying out almost as many unique functions as all the manufacturing activities of man on earth. However, it would be a factory which would have one capacity not equalled in any of our own most advanced machines, for it would be capable of replicating its entire structure within a matter of a few hours. To witness such an act at a magnification of one thousand million times would be an awe-inspiring spectacle.”


1) http://money.cnn.com/gallery/technology/2015/04/29/ford-factory-assembly-line-robots/
2) http://robohub.org/the-evolution-of-assembly-lines-a-brief-history/
3) http://www.assemblymag.com/articles/89974-9-line-layout-mistakes-to-avoid
4) http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~raj/writing/mass-craft.html

Seth Garren Biology resembles objects created by intelligent agents (humans) in a number of remarkable ways but it also differs from man made objects. Biological processes are dynamic while man made objects are static. Biological processes reproduce entirely on their own while man made objects must be assembled new each time. Biological processes rely on micro and nanoscale physics while only the most advanced man made objects operate on that level. We can claim that such differences are purely the result of biology being essentially a machine that is more advanced than any machine man has yet to make but this does not rule out a bottom up cause and is essentially a hypothesis-preserving ad hoc explanation. Most man made objects have a clear purpose in their creation to do a particular task. Biological processes do not appear to accomplish any purpose outside of their own continued existence. There is also no apparent reason to make a number of biological processes that resemble each other to varying degrees such that they give the false appearance of common ancestry.



Last edited by Admin on Sat Apr 01, 2017 4:40 pm; edited 48 times in total

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A comparison of human manufacturing facilities and products   with Cell biosynthesis.

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1987-information-biosynthesis-analogy-with-human-programming-engeneering-and-factory-robotic-assembly-lines#3347

To create complex artifacts for specific tasks and specific goals , there are different degrees of manufacturing efficiency. The best product is the one that best fits and is a close as possible tailored to our specific needs, which has the highest reliability, functionality, efficiency, confort, pleasing design etc.   Before the industrial revolution, things were made one at a time and were generally unique. No two items were exactly identical. Early craftsmen worked without the benefit of substantial mechanization, without which making identical, or nearly identical, items is actually more difficult than making each one different. Craft production, however, has severe drawbacks. Some items do benefit from being made to a standardized pattern. Wagons, for instance, benefit from using a standard track width so that they can all fit into the same set of ruts, and all of the arrows used with a particular bow must be as identical as possible in order to ensure maximum accuracy. Furthermore, craft made items are more difficult to fix than standardized ones. If part of a craft made item breaks, a new one must be fabricated to the same tolerances as the old part, while standardized parts are interchangeable by design.  15 With the start of the Industrial Revolution, machines began to perform work that once required human hands.

Mass production has many obvious advantages. When fully developed, it is much cheaper than craft production. Machines don't tire or get bored as human workers do, and in many cases they can perform their functions hundreds or thousands of times faster than any human laborer. They churn out identical parts and products, so that repairs can often be as simple as taking out a worn or broken part and putting in a new one- much cheaper than having to make the new part from scratch. Their products are also of much more uniform quality, so that buyers can have much greater confidence that their purchase will perform as expected. Another, often underappreciated feature of mass production is that it allows more thorough engineering. When each product is made one off, it doesn't make much sense to pour huge amounts of effort into designing it to be perfect. With mass production, though, engineering costs can be spread over thousands or millions of units, which means that it can be cost effective to incorporate some very sophisticated engineering design.

On a scale of 1 to 100 ( being 1 the lowest , 100 the highest  ), products made one at a time and  generally unique, are at the lowest end of  manufacturing advance and evolution, being scale = 1. The highest degree of manufacturing refinement and production technique is reached by a mix of so called  Mass-Craft:The key will be the use of computers, multi-function robots, and similar machines to span the gap between flexible but labor intensive craft production and cheap but inflexible mass production. This mixture of mass production technique with multifunction automation to produce customized products from an assembly line like factory is what we can  refer to as mass-craft production. The application of computerization to mass production will be a new revolution comprable only to the industrial revolution. Mass production will be substantially replaced by niche, and even personalized production. This new mass craft production will combine the mechanization and efficiency of mass production with the indiviualized products characteristic of hand crafting, with the lowest need of external informational input, but with the whole process fully programmed, and permitting fast high efficiency production with lowest costs and energy economy.

So we have on the side factories and products made by man. There was a evolution in the last one hundred years. We can generalize what humans have come up with in different degrees , increasing quality over time, but nontheless as following :

Production facilities with :

Low efficiency of human manufacturing processes
Long cycles , small production output
Low sophistication of manufacturing tools, sometimes non at all, but all done by hand.
Low automation, with new information input required all along the manufacturing process ( from brain to eyes and hands ), as without it,  the production will cease.
Low information storage capacity, as each individual has to teach the manufacturing process in a time consuming manner to other employees, which will have to be trained constantly. The manufacturing of each new product requires constant newly generated information input. The worker cannot put his brain into auto pilot. High rate of faulty made pieces is the result.
Low adaptability to external changes during the manufacturing, like shortage of material  supply , or energy, which results in low production efficiency
High energy consumption and  high rate of energy waste, and energy inefficiency.
Unefficient  and time wasting supply chains
High generation of waste with bad consequences for the environment

and products with  low or limited aggregation of value and sophistication :

Unefficient synchronicity of functional  parts
Inadequate materials to do the job
Products with low fidelity of reproduction and replication of products ( each copy is sligthly different than the original )
short time of durability
difficult to fix
availability of replacement parts often not long standing    etc.


Amazingly, the highest degree of manufacturing  performance, excellence, energy efficiency, adaptability to external change, economy, refinement and intelligence of production automatization ( at our scale = 100 )  we find in proceedings adopted by  each cell,  analogous to our factory , and biosynthesis pathways and processes in biology. Cells adopt highest advanced Mass-Craft production techniques , which yeald products with the ability of high adaptability to the environment ( micro evolution ) while being produced with high efficiency of production, advanced error checking mechanisms, low energy consumption and automatization, and so being  generally being  far far more advanced, complex,  better structured and organized in every aspect, than the most advanced robotic assembly facility ever created by man. I advocate that this fact is strong evidence of a planning, super intelligent mind, which conceptualized and created  life right from scratch.  

Analog to a manufacturing facility :   the Cell

In order to make life, and specially multicellular complex life,  the building blocks of life, cells, have to be made, which are the tiniest living entities. To build  cells requires information and programming, complex protein manufacturing machines and assembly lines, energy, nutrient supply chains, quality control , waste bins, ability to adapt  to the environment and to react to stimuli, ability of replicating, and housing ( the cell membrane ).

“The complexity of the simplest known type of cell is so great that it is impossible to accept that such an object could have been thrown together suddenly by some kind of freakish, vastly improbable, event. Such an occurrence would be indistinguishable from a miracle.”
― Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory In Crisis

A primitive cell like an E. coli bacteria - one of the simplest life forms in existence today -- is amazingly complex.

Following the E. coli model, a cell would have to contain at an absolute minimum:

A cell wall of some sort to contain the cell
A genetic blueprint for the cell (in the form of DNA)
DNA polymerase  capable of copying information out of the genetic blueprint to manufacture new proteins and enzymes
Ribosomes capable of manufacturing new enzymes, along with all of the building blocks for those enzymes
An enzyme that can build cell walls
An enzyme able to copy the genetic material in preparation for cell splitting (reproduction)
An enzyme or enzymes able to take care of all of the other operations of splitting one cell into two to implement reproduction (For example, something has to get the second copy of the genetic material separated from the first, and then the cell wall has to split and seal over in the two new cells.)
Enzymes able to manufacture energy molecules to power all of the previously mentioned enzymes   18


The cell compares to a factory :

The Cell membrane separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. Thats the exterior  factory wall  that protects the factory.

The Nucleus is the  Chief Executive Officer (CEO). It controls all cell activity; determines what proteins will be made and controls all cell activity.

Plasma membrane gates regulate what enters and leaves the cell; where cells makes contact with the external environment. That's the Shipping/Receiving Department. It functions also as the communications department because it is where the cell contacts the external environment.

The Cytoplasm includes everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It contains various kinds of cell structures and is the site of most cell activity. The cytoplasm is similar to the factory floor where most of the products are assembled, finished, and shipped.

Mitochondria/chloroplasts: The power plant. Transforms one form of energy into another

Mitochondrial membranes  keep protein assembly lines together for efficient energy production.

Membrane-enclosed vesicles form packages for cargo so that they may quickly and efficiently reach their destinations.

Internal membranes divide the cell into specialized compartments, each carrying out a specific function inside the cell. That are the compartments in a manufacturing facility.

The cytoplasm is contains the organelles; site of most cell activity.  Its like the space inside the factory.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is the compartment where the  Assembly lines reside.  (where workers do their work)

The Golgi apparatus: What happens to all the products that are built on the assembly line of a factory? The final touches are put on them in the finishing and packing department. Workers in this part of the plant are responsible for making minor adjustments to the finished products.

Ribosomes build the proteins , equal to  the Workers in the assembly line.

Signal-Recognition Particles (SRP) and signal receptors provide variety of instructions informing the cell as to what destination and pathway the protein must follow. Thats the address on the parcel where it has to be delivered.

Kinesin Motors: Are the cargo carriers in the cell. That are the  forklift carriers in a factory.

Microtubules: They provide platforms for intracellular transport , amongst other things. That are the internal factory highways.

Lysosomes: are capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris. Thats the maintainance crew.  It gets rid of the trash, and to dismantle and dispose of the outmoded machinery.

Hormones: permit the communication between the cells. Thats the cellphone to cellphone communication.


Cells have the highest evolved production facilities  ( scale from 0 - 100, they would be 100 )


Highest organisational order, and efficiency in all manufacturing stages and processes

Highest information storage capacity in the nucleus

Highest possible storage density down to atomic scale. DNA can store in 1 gramm  the information of  570 billion 8mb pendrives!

It is by far the densest information storage mechanism known in the universe.

Built in error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control

Processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction.

DNA as a storage medium permits to store the data uncorrupted for centuries.

DNA is volumetric (beaker) rather than planar (hard disk)

Complete  autonomy of manufacturing ( in our case duplication to make daughter cells )  without continuing external intelligence input

high economic,  effective and proper material flow inside the cell

maximal  flexibility  for demand and supply fluctuation

simple material delivery routes and pathways throughout the cell that connect the various internal and external parts

flexbility to external  changes and stimuly, since volumes and demand are variable

High efficiency in the regulation of cell size and growth

They adapt its metabolism to major changes in its environment.

The sensors are very sensitive, and overall there is a “high gain"

Cells employ molecular-sized motors with almost 100% efficiency.

Even single celled organisms have millions of components.

High organisation through compartmentalization

lowest energy consumption

Cells have advanced laboratories and refineries for breaking down external raw materials into their useable parts

high efficiency of braking down waste in the cell and reutilisation and reciclying

The cells of the human body can produce at least 100,000 different types of proteins, all with a unique function.

Unmatched energy efficiency, approximately 10,000 times more energy-efficient than any nanoscale digital transistor.

In one second, a cell performs about 10 million energy-consuming chemical reactions, which altogether require about
one picowatt (one millionth millionth of a watt) of power.

highest adaptability of the manufacturing process to external changes and pressures

fast fix of damage of broken parts

cells continually dismantle and reassemble their machines at different stages of the cell cycle and in response
to environmental challenges, such as infections.

Cells use a mixed strategy of prefabricating core elements of machines and then synthesizing additional, snap-on
molecules that give each machine a precise function.

The cell is the most complex system mankind has ever confronted.

Cellular transport systems: Gated transports require three basic components to work: an identification tag, a scanner
(to verify identification) and a gate (that is activated by the scanner), being a high efficiency signaling systems and communication pathways

and as the result :

The final product of the cell is the fidel copy of a daughter cell through replication. While human made factories produce  different things than itself, and the product being far less complex than the factory that builds the artifact,  the cell as final product makes a copy of itself with slight modifications. In multicell systems,  when it divides into two, one daughter cell goes on to make a more specialized type of cell, or even gives rise to several different cell types, and the final product is far far more complex physically than the cell from which it derived.

Cell's incorporate the highest possible production and manufacturing efficiency and advancement , far beyond imagination. One stem cell stores the information to make a body consisting of a vast of array of specialized cells, all interlocked , connected and interdependent producing  a harmonic whole, each cell exercising its specific function, producing a goal directed adult, able to reproduce, and adapt to the environment. So life goes on for thousands of years, without direct intelligent intervention but fully programmed in the nucleous since its beginning.  Thats the highest form of adaptive " product " one can imagine, and its incredible efficient and advanced ( = 100 ) production method of robust adaptive design permits rational and secure inference of design.


The major conceptual flaw of naturalistic evolution models is the fact that it builds on a foundation that cannot be backed up rationally. Its a  fact that  major gaps of understanding about  how first cells could have arised, exist. Fantastic scenarios are hypothesized, like naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentations observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide to explain the arise of the first cell membranes, self replicating RNA strands, precipitates coevolution of dozens of varios cell components at the same time, " quantum evolution ", ideas which do have no scientific backing, but are just scenarios of scientific fiction in the fertile mind of naturalists.  In the same way as the foundation of a building must be ready, in order to build the house, so with the ToE. Despite a division is made, both , abiogenesis, and biodiversity through ToE stand and fall together. If one isn't true, the other most probably isn't either. There is no reason to evoke the idea that a creator used evolution and natural selection to create all biodiversity. Not only, because in my view  that would diminish his glory. And a capable and powerful God, that creates the universe, should also be able to specially create the incredibly various kinds of animals and plants. But principally, because the overal concept and layout of biological machines indicate that there must be planning in the forefront, conceptualisation of the whole process, visualisation of interdependent parts which work as a interlocking whole like machines designed and engeneered my man. Beside the empirical tests , which show that evolution isnt able to produce new functions for enzymes and proteins 19


Ann Gauger puts it that way :

Its a very complex integrated system with hierarchical layers of regulation and gene expression, similar to the programs and sub-programs of computer software but much more sophisticated. You can imagine a simple evolutionary pathway, but when you get down to the details, it's far from simple. Each embryo follows a precisely choreographed developmental road map in order to get to the final goal -- the reproductive adult.  Each step is necessary but not sufficient by itself. Turn aside from this developmental pathway and the result is likely to be a damaged worm or a dead one. Skip some steps and the same is true. How did this process come about? We would say this goal-directedness is evidence for a designer who had the final end in mind, and arranged the proper developmental steps appropriately.17

Evolutionary biologists disagree. They say this exquisitely refined developmental pathway evolved gradually, a little at a time. First there was a cell, then a eukaryotic cell, one with a nucleus, organelles, and a cytoskeleton. Then along came multicellularity -- cells living together to make an organism, with some cells set aside to make the next generation, and others free to specialize. As time went on, new digestive, muscle, nerve, and sensory cells evolved and were successfully coordinated into functioning whole organisms.

New genes and proteins must be invented. The cytoskeleton, Hox genes, desmosomes, cell adhesion molecules, growth factors, microtubules, microfilaments, neurotransmitters, whatever it takes to get cells to stick together, form different shapes, specialize, and communicate must all come from somewhere.Regulatory proteins and RNAs must be made to control the expression in time and space of these new proteins so that they all work together with existing pathways.In fact, in order for development to proceed in any organism, a whole cascade of coordinated genetic and biochemical events is necessary so that cells divide, change shape, migrate, and finally differentiate into many cell types, all in the right sequence at the right time and place. These cascades and the resulting cell divisions, shape changes, etc., are mutually interdependent. Interrupting one disrupts the others.



There is no known compelling mechanism of transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In a multicell organism, stem cells know how to replicate and produce all the specialized daughter cells with amazing efficiency, when to produce them, where they belong, and how to deliver them at the right place. So a organism with just two cells, is already perfect in regard of organisation, complexity, build-up correctness in its developing stage, in the same manner as a organism fully grown, as a human with 3 trillion cells.  There is another interesting aspect. Living beings are always finished and fully apt for survival ( unless sudden violent or sometimes slow habitat changes happen, to which the organism cannot react fast enough ).  A child , 10 years old, has a body with all its members and capable faculties, even if not fully grown. Human artifacts are only finished, when fully build, but during the manufacturing process, unfinished, and unusable. So the whole process of growth of the biological organism is consummate and perfect, even if not finished, while human's artifacts are  not. [/justify]
9) http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2010/cytomorphic-0225.html
10) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060123121832.htm
11) http://creation.com/how-life-works
12) http://www.cnet.com/news/human-brain-has-more-switches-than-all-computers-on-earth/#ixzz15gKimfLp
13) http://www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/~passino/clca_plenary.pdf
14) Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker, pp. 116–117
15) http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~raj/writing/mass-craft.html
16) http://www.discovery.org/a/14791
17) http://www.evolutionnews.org/2015/04/the_white_space_1095671.html
18) http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/evolution/evolution11.htm
19) http://bio-complexity.org/ojs/index.php/main/article/view/BIO-C.2011.1



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Denton, p. 329.

We would see [in cells] that nearly every feature of our own advanced machines had its analogue in the cell: artificial languages and their decoding systems, memory banks for information storage and retrieval, elegant control systems regulating the automated assembly of parts and components, error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control, assembly processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction. In fact, so deep would be the feeling of deja-vu, so persuasive the analogy, that much of the terminology we would use to describe this fascinating molecular reality would be borrowed from the world of late twentieth-century technology. “What we would be witnessing would be an object resembling an immense automated factory, a factory larger than a city and carrying out almost as many unique functions as all the manufacturing activities of man on earth. However, it would be a factory which would have one capacity not equalled in any of our own most advanced machines, for it would be capable of replicating its entire structure within a matter of a few hours. To witness such an act at a magnification of one thousand million times would be an awe-inspiring spectacle.”

The most advanced human made factories  and manufacturing assembly lines in contrast require conventional control, mathematics, physics/modeling, sensor/actuator technology, computer science/technology , the results are automation, but always on the cost of  problems caused by complex, large scale control/automation inperfections.  

Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory In Crisis

To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is twenty kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or New York. What we would then see would be an object of unparalleled complexity and adaptive design. On the surface of the cell we would see millions of openings, like the port holes of a vast space ship, opening and closing to allow a continual stream of materials to flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these openings we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity.

Most bacteria require several thousand genes to carry out the minimum functions necessary for life. Denton notes that even though the tiniest bacterial cells are incredibly small, each bacterium is a……veritable micro-miniaturized factory containing thousands of exquisitely designed pieces of intricate molecular machinery, made up altogether of one hundred thousand million atoms, far more complicated than any machine built by man and absolutely without parallel in the non-living world (Denton, 1986, p. 250).

Unmatched energy efficiency of the cell
A single cell in the human body is approximately 10,000 times more energy-efficient than any nanoscale digital transistor, the fundamental building block of electronic chips. In one second, a cell performs about 10 million energy-consuming chemical reactions, which altogether require about one picowatt (one millionth millionth of a watt) of power.  9)


In contrast to most man-made factories, cells continually dismantle and reassemble their machines at different stages of the cell cycle and in response to environmental challenges, such as infections. Cells use a mixed strategy of prefabricating core elements of machines and then synthesizing additional, snap-on molecules that give each machine a precise function. That provides an economic way to diversify biological processes and also to control them." Thus if the cell needs to respond quickly, such as in a disease or another emergency, it may only need to produce few parts to switch on or tune the machine. On the other hand, if something shouldn't happen, it may only need to block the production of a few molecules. Patrick Aloy and Rob Russell at EMBL used sophisticated computer techniques to reveal the modular organisation of these cellular machines. 10)


The cell is the most complex system mankind has ever confronted. Today we know that the cell contains power stations producing the energy to be used by the cell, factories manufacturing the enzymes and hormones essential for life, a databank where all the necessary information about all products to be produced is recorded, complex transportation systems and pipelines for carrying raw materials and products from one place to another, advanced laboratories and refineries for breaking down external raw materials into their useable parts, and specialized cell membrane proteins to control the incoming and outgoing materials. And these constitute only a small part of this incredibly complex system.

Cellular transport systems:Gated transport is called thus due to it's similarity to our everyday experience of passing through a guarded (electronically or otherwise) gate. This system require three basic components to work: an identification tag, a scanner (to verify identification) and a gate (that is activated by the scanner). The system needs all three components to work otherwise it will not work. Thus in a cell, when a protein is to be manufactured, one of the first steps is for the mRNA [c] to be transported out from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. This requires gated transport of the mRNA at the nuclear pore. Proteins in the pore reads a signal from the RNA (the scanner reads the identification tag) and opens the pore (gate is opened). 6)

The only reason that DNA functions as well as it does is that cells come equipped with an amazing array of cooperative DNA repair mechanisms. For example, polymerase replication during cell division might produce 6 million errors per cell, but then proofreading machinery can reduce this to 10,000 and then mis-match repair machinery could reduce this to 100.  11)

Question: How could this enormously efficient repair mechanism have evolved, which finds its analogy in our Computer Programs for Spelling Correction ?

One synapse cell, by itself, is more like a microprocessor--with both memory-storage and information-processing elements--than a mere on/off switch. In fact, one synapse may contain on the order of 1,000 molecular-scale switches. A single human brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internet connections on Earth. 12)

As Coppedge (1973) notes, even 1) postulating a primordial sea with every single component necessary for life, 2) speeding up the bonding rate so as to form different chemical combinations a trillion times more rapidly than hypothesized to have occurred, 3) allowing for a 4.6 billion- year-old earth and 4) using all atoms on the earth still leaves the probability of a single protein molecule being arranged by chance is 1 in 10^261.

Using the lowest estimate made before the discoveries of the past two decades raised the number several fold. Coppedge estimates the probability of 1 in 10^119,879 is necessary to obtain the minimum set of the required estimate of 239 protein molecules for the smallest theoretical life form. 7)



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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid_synthesis

Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds. The substrates for these processes are various compounds in the organism's diet or growth media. Not all organisms are able to synthesise all amino acids. For example, humans are able to synthesise only 12 of the 20 standard amino acids.

A fundamental problem for biological systems is to obtain nitrogen in an easily usable form. This problem is solved by certain microorganisms capable of reducing the inert N≡N molecule (nitrogen gas) to two molecules of ammonia in one of the most remarkable reactions in biochemistry. Ammonia is the source of nitrogen for all the amino acids. The carbon backbonescome from the glycolytic pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, or the citric acid cycle.

We have always underestimated cells. Undoubtedly we still do today. But at least we are no longer as naive as we were when I was a graduate student in the 1960s. Then, most of us viewed cells as containing a giant set of second-order reactions: molecules A and B were thought to diffuse freely, randomly colliding with each other to produce molecule AB—and likewise for the many other molecules that interact with each other inside a cell. This seemed reasonable because, as we had learned from studying physical chemistry, motions at the scale of molecules are incredibly rapid. … But, as it turns out, we can walk and we can talk because the chemistry that makes life possible is much more elaborate and sophisticated than anything we students had ever considered. Proteins make up most of the dry mass of a cell. But instead of a cell dominated by randomly colliding individual protein molecules, we now know that nearly every major process in a cell is carried out by assemblies of 10 or more protein molecules. And, as it carries out its biological functions, each of these protein assemblies interacts with several other large complexes of proteins. Indeed, the entire cell can be viewed as a factory that contains an elaborate network of interlocking assembly lines, each of which is composed of a set of large protein machines. […]

  Why do we call the large protein assemblies that underlie cell function protein machines? Precisely because, like the machines invented by humans to deal efficiently with the macroscopic world, these protein assemblies contain highly coordinated moving parts. Within each protein assembly, intermolecular collisions are not only restricted to a small set of possibilities, but reaction C depends on reaction B, which in turn depends on reaction A—just as it would in a machine of our common experience. […]

  We have also come to realize that protein assemblies can be enormously complex. … As the example of the spliceosome should make clear, the cartoons thus far used to depict protein machines vastly underestimate the sophistication of many of these remarkable devices.  1



1)[Bruce Alberts, “The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines: Preparing the Next Generation of Molecular Biologists,” Cell 92 (1998): 291-294.]


Cells superb manufacturing concepts and incredible performance evidences intelligent design

The best and most advanced result that  intelligent  and capable  minds, thousands and hundred thousands of the most brilliant and inventive man and woman from all over the globe have been  able to come up with after over one hundred years of technologic advance and progress, of what is considered one of the greatest innovations of the 20th century , is the construction of complex factories with fully automated assembly lines which use  programmed roboters in the manufacturing, assembly, quality control and  packing process of the most diverse products, from cell phones, to cars, but the constant intervention of intelligent brain power is required to get the whole process done, and obtain  the final products. The distribution of the products is also based on complex distribution networks and companies, which all require hudge efforts of constant human intervention and brainpower.  

Amazingly, the highest degree of manufacturing  performance, excellence, energy efficiency, adaptability to external change, economy, refinement and intelligence of production automatization ( at our scale = 100 )  we find in proceedings adopted by  each cell,  analogous to our factory , and biosynthesis pathways and processes in biology. Cells adopt highest advanced Mass-Craft production techniques , which yeald products with the ability of high adaptability to the environment ( micro evolution ) while being produced with high efficiency of production, advanced error checking mechanisms, low energy consumption and automatization, and so being generally being  far far more advanced, complex,  better structured and organized in every aspect, than the most advanced robotic assembly facility ever created by man. I advocate that this fact is strong evidence of a planning, super intelligent mind, which conceptualized and created  life right from scratch.

read more :

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1987-information-biosynthesis-analogy-with-human-programming-engeneering-and-factory-robotic-assembly-lines#3330

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