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Cells superb manufacturing concepts and incredible performance evidences intelligent design

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Cells superb  manufacturing  concepts and incredible performance evidences intelligent design

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1997-cells-superb-manufacturing-concepts-and-incredible-performance-evidences-intelligent-design#3349

To create complex artifacts for specific tasks and specific goals , there are different degrees of manufacturing efficiency. The best product is the one that best fits and is a close as possible tailored to our specific needs, which has the highest reliability, functionality, efficiency, confort, pleasing design etc.   Before the industrial revolution, things were made one at a time and were generally unique. No two items were exactly identical. Early craftsmen worked without the benefit of substantial mechanization, without which making identical, or nearly identical, items is actually more difficult than making each one different. Craft production, however, has severe drawbacks. Some items do benefit from being made to a standardized pattern. Wagons, for instance, benefit from using a standard track width so that they can all fit into the same set of ruts, and all of the arrows used with a particular bow must be as identical as possible in order to ensure maximum accuracy. Furthermore, craft made items are more difficult to fix than standardized ones. If part of a craft made item breaks, a new one must be fabricated to the same tolerances as the old part, while standardized parts are interchangeable by design.  15 With the start of the Industrial Revolution, machines began to perform work that once required human hands.

Mass production has many obvious advantages. When fully developed, it is much cheaper than craft production. Machines don't tire or get bored as human workers do, and in many cases they can perform their functions hundreds or thousands of times faster than any human laborer. They churn out identical parts and products, so that repairs can often be as simple as taking out a worn or broken part and putting in a new one- much cheaper than having to make the new part from scratch. Their products are also of much more uniform quality, so that buyers can have much greater confidence that their purchase will perform as expected. Another, often underappreciated feature of mass production is that it allows more thorough engineering. When each product is made one off, it doesn't make much sense to pour huge amounts of effort into designing it to be perfect. With mass production, though, engineering costs can be spread over thousands or millions of units, which means that it can be cost effective to incorporate some very sophisticated engineering design.

On a scale of 1 to 100 ( being 1 the lowest , 100 the highest  ), products made one at a time and  generally unique, are at the lowest end of  manufacturing advance and evolution, being scale = 1. The highest degree of manufacturing refinement and production technique is reached by a mix of so called  Mass-Craft:The key will be the use of computers, multi-function robots, and similar machines to span the gap between flexible but labor intensive craft production and cheap but inflexible mass production. This mixture of mass production technique with multifunction automation to produce customized products from an assembly line like factory is what we can  refer to as mass-craft production. The application of computerization to mass production will be a new revolution comprable only to the industrial revolution. Mass production will be substantially replaced by niche, and even personalized production. This new mass craft production will combine the mechanization and efficiency of mass production with the indiviualized products characteristic of hand crafting, with the lowest need of external informational input, but with the whole process fully programmed, and permitting fast high efficiency production with lowest costs and energy economy.

So we have on the side factories and products made by man. There was a evolution in the last one hundred years. We can generalize what humans have come up with in different degrees , increasing quality over time, but nontheless as following :

Production facilities with :

Low efficiency of human manufacturing processes
Long cycles , small production output
Low sophistication of manufacturing tools, sometimes non at all, but all done by hand.
Low automation, with new information input required all along the manufacturing process ( from brain to eyes and hands ), as without it,  the production will cease.
Low information storage capacity, as each individual has to teach the manufacturing process in a time consuming manner to other employees, which will have to be trained constantly. The manufacturing of each new product requires constant newly generated information input. The worker cannot put his brain into auto pilot. High rate of faulty made pieces is the result.
Low adaptability to external changes during the manufacturing, like shortage of material  supply , or energy, which results in low production efficiency
High energy consumption and  high rate of energy waste, and energy inefficiency.
Unefficient  and time wasting supply chains
High generation of waste with bad consequences for the environment

and products with  low or limited aggregation of value and sophistication :

Unefficient synchronicity of functional  parts
Inadequate materials to do the job
Products with low fidelity of reproduction and replication of products ( each copy is sligthly different than the original )
short time of durability
difficult to fix
availability of replacement parts often not long standing    etc.


Amazingly, the highest degree of manufacturing  performance, excellence, energy efficiency, adaptability to external change, economy, refinement and intelligence of production automatization ( at our scale = 100 )  we find in proceedings adopted by  each cell,  analogous to our factory , and biosynthesis pathways and processes in biology generally being  far far more advanced, complex,  better structured and organized in every aspect, than the most advanced robotic assembly facility ever created by man. I advocate that this fact is strong evidence of a planning, super intelligent mind, which conceptualized and created  life right from scratch.  

Analog to a manufacturing facility :   the Cell

In order to make life, and specially multicellular complex life,  the building blocks of life, cells, have to be made, which are the tiniest living entities. To build  cells requires information and programming, complex protein manufacturing machines and assembly lines, energy, nutrient supply chains, quality control , waste bins, ability to adapt  to the environment and to react to stimuli, ability of replicating, and housing ( the cell membrane ).

“The complexity of the simplest known type of cell is so great that it is impossible to accept that such an object could have been thrown together suddenly by some kind of freakish, vastly improbable, event. Such an occurrence would be indistinguishable from a miracle.”
― Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory In Crisis

A primitive cell like an E. coli bacteria - one of the simplest life forms in existence today -- is amazingly complex.

Following the E. coli model, a cell would have to contain at an absolute minimum:

A cell wall of some sort to contain the cell
A genetic blueprint for the cell (in the form of DNA)
DNA polymerase  capable of copying information out of the genetic blueprint to manufacture new proteins and enzymes
Ribosomes capable of manufacturing new enzymes, along with all of the building blocks for those enzymes
An enzyme that can build cell walls
An enzyme able to copy the genetic material in preparation for cell splitting (reproduction)
An enzyme or enzymes able to take care of all of the other operations of splitting one cell into two to implement reproduction (For example, something has to get the second copy of the genetic material separated from the first, and then the cell wall has to split and seal over in the two new cells.)
Enzymes able to manufacture energy molecules to power all of the previously mentioned enzymes   18


The cell compares to a factory :

The Cell membrane separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. Thats the exterior  factory wall  that protects the factory.

The Nucleus is the  Chief Executive Officer (CEO). It controls all cell activity; determines what proteins will be made and controls all cell activity.

Plasma membrane gates regulate what enters and leaves the cell; where cells makes contact with the external environment. That's the Shipping/Receiving Department. It functions also as the communications department because it is where the cell contacts the external environment.

The Cytoplasm includes everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It contains various kinds of cell structures and is the site of most cell activity. The cytoplasm is similar to the factory floor where most of the products are assembled, finished, and shipped.

Mitochondria/chloroplasts: The power plant. Transforms one form of energy into another

Mitochondrial membranes  keep protein assembly lines together for efficient energy production.

Membrane-enclosed vesicles form packages for cargo so that they may quickly and efficiently reach their destinations.

Internal membranes divide the cell into specialized compartments, each carrying out a specific function inside the cell. That are the compartments in a manufacturing facility.

The cytoplasm is contains the organelles; site of most cell activity.  Its like the space inside the factory.

The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is the compartment where the  Assembly lines reside.  (where workers do their work)

The Golgi apparatus: What happens to all the products that are built on the assembly line of a factory? The final touches are put on them in the finishing and packing department. Workers in this part of the plant are responsible for making minor adjustments to the finished products.

Ribosomes build the proteins , equal to  the Workers in the assembly line.

Signal-Recognition Particles (SRP) and signal receptors provide variety of instructions informing the cell as to what destination and pathway the protein must follow. Thats the address on the parcel where it has to be delivered.

Kinesin Motors: Are the cargo carriers in the cell. That are the  forklift carriers in a factory.

Microtubules: They provide platforms for intracellular transport , amongst other things. That are the internal factory highways.

Lysosomes: are capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris. Thats the maintainance crew.  It gets rid of the trash, and to dismantle and dispose of the outmoded machinery.

Hormones: permit the communication between the cells. Thats the cellphone to cellphone communication.


Cells have the highest evolved production facilities  ( scale from 0 - 100, they would be 100 )

Highest organisational order, and efficiency in all manufacturing stages and processes

Highest information storage capacity in the nucleus

Highest possible storage density down to atomic scale. DNA can store in 1 gramm  the information of  570 billion 8mb pendrives!

It is by far the densest information storage mechanism known in the universe.

Built in error fail-safe and proof-reading devices utilized for quality control

Processes involving the principle of prefabrication and modular construction.

DNA as a storage medium permits to store the data uncorrupted for centuries.

DNA is volumetric (beaker) rather than planar (hard disk)

Complete  autonomy of manufacturing ( in our case duplication to make daughter cells )  without continuing external intelligence input

high economic,  effective and proper material flow inside the cell

maximal  flexibility for demand and supply fluctuation

simple material delivery routes and pathways throughout the cell that connect the various internal and external parts

flexbility to external  changes and stimuly, since volumes and demand are variable

High efficiency in the regulation of cell size and growth

They adapt its metabolism to major changes in its environment.

The sensors are very sensitive, and overall there is a “high gain"

Cells employ molecular-sized motors with almost 100% efficiency.

Even single celled organisms have millions of components.

High organisation through compartmentalization

lowest energy consumption

Cells have advanced laboratories and refineries for breaking down external raw materials into their useable parts

high efficiency of braking down waste in the cell and reutilisation and reciclying

The cells of the human body can produce at least 100,000 different types of proteins, all with a unique function.

Unmatched energy efficiency, approximately 10,000 times more energy-efficient than any nanoscale digital transistor.

In one second, a cell performs about 10 million energy-consuming chemical reactions, which altogether require about
one picowatt (one millionth millionth of a watt) of power.

highest adaptability of the manufacturing process to external changes and pressures

fast fix of damage of broken parts

cells continually dismantle and reassemble their machines at different stages of the cell cycle and in response
to environmental challenges, such as infections.

Cells use a mixed strategy of prefabricating core elements of machines and then synthesizing additional, snap-on
molecules that give each machine a precise function.

The cell is the most complex system mankind has ever confronted.

Cellular transport systems: Gated transports require three basic components to work: an identification tag, a scanner
(to verify identification) and a gate (that is activated by the scanner), being a high efficiency signaling systems and communication pathways

and as the result :

The final product of the cell is the fidel copy of a daughter cell through replication. While human made factories produce  different things than itself, and the product being far less complex than the factory that builds the artifact,  the cell as final product makes a copy of itself with slight modifications. In multicell systems,  when it divides into two, one daughter cell goes on to make a more specialized type of cell, or even gives rise to several different cell types, and the final product is far far more complex physically than the cell from which it derived.

Cell's incorporate the highest possible production and manufacturing efficiency and advancement , far beyond imagination. One stem cell stores the information to make a body consisting of a vast of array of specialized cells, all interlocked , connected and interdependent producing  a harmonic whole, each cell exercising its specific function, producing a goal directed adult, able to reproduce, and adapt to the environment. So life goes on for thousands of years, without direct intelligent intervention but fully programmed in the nucleous since its beginning.  Thats the highest form of adaptive " product " one can imagine, and its incredible efficient and advanced ( = 100 ) production method of robust adaptive design permits rational and secure inference of design.


The major conceptual flaw of naturalistic evolution models is the fact that it builds on a foundation that cannot be backed up rationally. Its a  fact that  major gaps of understanding about  how first cells could have arised, exist. Fantastic scenarios are hypothesized, like naturally arising, three-dimensional compartmentations observed within fossilized seepage-site metal sulphide to explain the arise of the first cell membranes, self replicating RNA strands, precipitates coevolution of dozens of varios cell components at the same time, " quantum evolution ", ideas which do have no scientific backing, but are just scenarios of scientific fiction in the fertile mind of naturalists.  In the same way as the foundation of a building must be ready, in order to build the house, so with the ToE. Despite a division is made, both , abiogenesis, and biodiversity through ToE stand and fall together. If one isn't true, the other most probably isn't either. There is no reason to evoke the idea that a creator used evolution and natural selection to create all biodiversity. Not only, because in my view  that would diminish his glory. And a capable and powerful God, that creates the universe, should also be able to specially create the incredibly various kinds of animals and plants. But principally, because the overal concept and layout of biological machines indicate that there must be planning in the forefront, conceptualisation of the whole process, visualisation of interdependent parts which work as a interlocking whole like machines designed and engeneered my man. Beside the empirical tests , which show that evolution isnt able to produce new functions for enzymes and proteins 19


Ann Gauger puts it that way :

Its a very complex integrated system with hierarchical layers of regulation and gene expression, similar to the programs and sub-programs of computer software but much more sophisticated. You can imagine a simple evolutionary pathway, but when you get down to the details, it's far from simple. Each embryo follows a precisely choreographed developmental road map in order to get to the final goal -- the reproductive adult.  Each step is necessary but not sufficient by itself. Turn aside from this developmental pathway and the result is likely to be a damaged worm or a dead one. Skip some steps and the same is true. How did this process come about? We would say this goal-directedness is evidence for a designer who had the final end in mind, and arranged the proper developmental steps appropriately.17

Evolutionary biologists disagree. They say this exquisitely refined developmental pathway evolved gradually, a little at a time. First there was a cell, then a eukaryotic cell, one with a nucleus, organelles, and a cytoskeleton. Then along came multicellularity -- cells living together to make an organism, with some cells set aside to make the next generation, and others free to specialize. As time went on, new digestive, muscle, nerve, and sensory cells evolved and were successfully coordinated into functioning whole organisms.

New genes and proteins must be invented. The cytoskeleton, Hox genes, desmosomes, cell adhesion molecules, growth factors, microtubules, microfilaments, neurotransmitters, whatever it takes to get cells to stick together, form different shapes, specialize, and communicate must all come from somewhere.Regulatory proteins and RNAs must be made to control the expression in time and space of these new proteins so that they all work together with existing pathways.In fact, in order for development to proceed in any organism, a whole cascade of coordinated genetic and biochemical events is necessary so that cells divide, change shape, migrate, and finally differentiate into many cell types, all in the right sequence at the right time and place. These cascades and the resulting cell divisions, shape changes, etc., are mutually interdependent. Interrupting one disrupts the others.



There is no known compelling mechanism of transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In a multicell organism, stem cells know how to replicate and produce all the specialized daughter cells with amazing efficiency, when to produce them, where they belong, and how to deliver them at the right place. So a organism with just two cells, is already perfect in regard of organisation, complexity, build-up correctness in its developing stage, in the same manner as a organism fully grown, as a human with 3 trillion cells.  There is another interesting aspect. Living beings are always finished and fully apt for survival ( unless sudden violent or sometimes slow habitat changes happen, to which the organism cannot react fast enough ).  A child , 10 years old, has a body with all its members and capable faculties, even if not fully grown. Human artifacts are only finished, when fully build, but during the manufacturing process, unfinished, and unusable. So the whole process of growth of the biological organism is consummate and perfect, even if not finished, while human's artifacts are  not.

9) http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2010/cytomorphic-0225.html
10) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060123121832.htm
11) http://creation.com/how-life-works
12) http://www.cnet.com/news/human-brain-has-more-switches-than-all-computers-on-earth/#ixzz15gKimfLp
13) http://www2.ece.ohio-state.edu/~passino/clca_plenary.pdf
14) Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker, pp. 116–117
15) http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~raj/writing/mass-craft.html
16) http://www.discovery.org/a/14791
17) http://www.evolutionnews.org/2015/04/the_white_space_1095671.html
18) http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/evolution/evolution11.htm
19) http://bio-complexity.org/ojs/index.php/main/article/view/BIO-C.2011.1

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