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Factory and machine planning and design, and what it tells us about cell factories and molecular machines

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Factory and machine planning and design, and what it tells us about cell factories and molecular machines

The Cell is  a Factory

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2245-factory-and-machine-planning-and-design-and-what-it-tells-us-about-cell-factories-and-molecular-machines

The cell is like a factory, that has various computer like hierarchically organized systems of  hardware and software, various language based  informational systems, a translation system, huge amounts of precise instructional/specified, complex information stored and extract systems to make all parts needed to produce the factory and replicate itself, the scaffold structure, that permits the build of the indispensable protection wall, form and size of its building, walls with  gates that permits  cargo in and out, recognition mechanisms that let only the right cargo in, has specific sites and production lines, "employees", busy and instructed to produce all kind of necessary products, parts and subparts  with the right form and size through the right materials, others which mount the parts together in the right order, on the right place, in the right sequence, at the right time,   which has sophisticated check and error detection mechanisms all along the production process, the ability to compare correctly produced parts to faulty ones and discard the faulty ones, and repeat the process to make the correct ones;

highways and cargo carriers that have tags which recognize where to drop the cargo where it's needed,  cleans up waste and has waste bins and sophisticated recycle mechanisms, storage departments, produces its energy and shuttles it to where it's needed, and last not least, does reproduce itself. The salient thing is that the individual parts and compartments have no function by their own. They had to emerge ALL AT ONCE, No stepwise manner is possible, all systems are INTERDEPENDENT and IRREDUCIBLE. And it could not be through evolution, since evolution depends on fully working self-replicating cells, in order to function.  How can someone rationally argue that the origin of the most sophisticated factory in the universe would be probable to be based on natural occurrence, without involving any guiding intelligence?  To go from a bacterium to people is less of a step than to go from a mixture of amino acids to a bacterium. — Lynn Margulis

Molecular machines in biology
http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t1289-molecular-machines-in-biology

It is now clear that most functions in the cell are not carried out by single protein enzymes, colliding randomly within the cellular jungle, but by macromolecular complexes containing multiple subunits with specific functions (Alberts 1998). Many of these complexes are described as “molecular machines.” Indeed, this designation captures many of the aspects characterizing these biological complexes: modularity, complexity, cyclic function, and, in most cases, the consumption of energy. Examples of such molecular machines are the replisome, the transcriptional machinery, the spliceosome, and the ribosome.

The Cell is a factory. the Nucleus is the control office.  The cell membrane the security guard and wall. The cytoskeleton is like the support structures. The Cytoplasm is like the Air and the Factory FloorThe endoplasmic reticulum is like the Assembly Line. Ribosomes are information translation devices.  The Golgi Apparatus is like the Alpha and Beta Testers. Lysosomes are like the Janitors. Vacuoles are the Storage Units. The Mitochondria is the Powerplant. Chloroplasts are like the Solar Panels.


The Nucleus is like the control office.
Stores the information for our body/ the factory
controls the cell/factory
most important part of the cell/company

The cell membrane is like the security guard
only lets certain things enter and leave the cell/factory
makes sure the things the cell/factory needs comes in.
makes sure the things that would be bad for the cell/factory can't come in

The cytoskeleton/ the cell wall is like the support structures
Gives support to the building
Gives the building a shape

The Cytoplasm is like the Air and the Factory Floor
Takes up most of the cell's volume
Covers almost all of where the work is being done

The endoplasmic reticulum is like the Assembly Line
The E.R. serves as the site of production for proteins
The assembly line is where all of the products are made

Ribosomes are like the Employees on the Floor
Ribosomes make the proteins, so they are the employees of the cell
The Employees on the floor are the people who make all of the products that are shipped out

The Golgi Apparatus is like the Alpha and Beta Testers
The Golgi Apparatus makes sure the Products put out by the E.R. will work
The alpha and Beta testers are there to make sure the Factory's products come out the way they should

Lysosomes are like the Janitors
The Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes to clean up the cell and get rid of waste
The Janitors always make sure the factory is clean

Vacuoles are like the Storage Units
The vacuole is there for storage
The storage units in a factory store the thing that will be needed for future use

The Mitochondria are like the Powerplant
The Mitochondria break down food molecules to create energy for the cell
The Powerplant of the factory creates energy for the Factory

The Chloroplasts are like the Solar Panels
The chloroplasts are only in some cells (plant cells) and they create energy from sunlight
Not everyone has Solar Panels, and they soak up the energy made by the sun

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1wKdTv5AeYQuVF4AcK6jhIhnSUYWEut_8m2dGQrjDXOo/edit#slide=id.g3217d827_0_49


Information Management for Factory Planning and Design 

Manufacturing   and Factory  location:
In a human factory:
The term manufacturing location represents the external perspective. Within the scope of developing business sectors, market offers, and necessary processes, a suitable manufacturing location has to be selected from a global perspective. Sometimes a web of different manufacturing companies produces subparts at different locations and countries, each factory at a different place producing different parts, which then are sent to a central assembly factory. The whole process must be coordinated and managed. The factories communicate with each other to coordinate the whole manufacturing process. In order to quickly seize opportunities for a complex product or system, a number of factories
can temporarily join together for a project and bundle their processes and resources.
In the cell:
In a developing animal embryo, the four fundamental processes are happening in a kaleidoscopic variety of ways, as they give rise to different parts of the organism. 4 Like the members of an orchestra, the cells in the embryo have to play their individual parts in a highly coordinated manner. In the embryo, however, there is no conductor—no central authority—to direct the performance. Instead, development is a self-assembly process in which the cells, as they grow and proliferate, organize themselves into increasingly complex structures. Each of the millions of cells has to choose for itself how to behave, selectively utilizing the genetic instructions in its chromosomes. The mechanism that sets up the basic body plan of the developing fly is surprisingly precise. ( that is, that coordinates where the individual cells have to be )  Question : had these instructions not have to be pre-programmed through a intelligent  mind?

Morphology of Factory Types
In a human factory:
Various types of factories can be made, depending on the requirement of production. The choosing and decision making of which factory type is required is a mental process. 

In the cell:
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process of a cell changing from one cell type to another. Most commonly this is a less specialized type becoming a more specialized type, such as during cell growth. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. 5 
The Development of Multicellular Organisms Requires the OrchestratedDifferentiation of Cells 6
Each multicellular organism begins as a single cell. For this cell to develop into a complex organism, the embryonic cells must follow an intricate program of regulated gene expression, cell division, and cell movement. Programming is throughout a mental process.  The developmental program relies substantially on the responses of cells to the environment created by neighboring cells. Cells in specific positions within the developing embryo divide to form particular tissues, such as muscle.

Factory planning: 
Factory planning covers all activities in the fold-out, except the installation parts, when developing a (new) factory. It extends from investigating the feasibility of the factory

Factory design:  
The main result from the factory design is the factory layout. 

Information management within factory planning and design: 
This part focuses on the information that needs to be managed within factory planning and has a deeper focus on factory design. Information management in this research is not about PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) as many people will relate to. Information management in this research means how all the information within a domain can/should be organized, structured, represented and presented for the best use and reuse, both for humans and applications. This is also the foundation for a good realization of PLM or rather MLM (Manufacturing lifecycle management) in this case. 

Factory layout planning: 
it is also about the information needed to develop a factory layout. Factory layout can be manufacturing system layout, building layout, or safety layout. flow simulation, scheduling and optimization for fine tuning of the layout.

Equipment supply:  
management of equipment and raw material supply 

Process planning: 
The focus of process planning is how a part or product should be manufactured in a machine or a manufacturing system. The planning handles the selection of the right type of process, sequence planning, measurement planning, appropriate fixture design etc.

Production Planning and Control




In a human factory:
The control loop, as depicted above, is well suited as a model for planning the production.  Based on these a production planning and control system (PPC) uses various
methods to generate a production plan that is then further broken down into in-house production plans, procurement plans, and supply plans. The key tasks of production planning and control include planning the production program, planning the production requirements, and planning and control of external procurements and in-house manufactured items. Production program planning determines which products should be produced in which quantities during the next planning periods.
In the cell: 
This separation of the DNA from the protein synthesis machinery provides eukaryotic cells with more intricate regulatory control over the production of proteins and their RNA intermediates.

Communication:
In a human factory:
Communication networks must be established and kept during factory operation as well. Material and communication flows, need to be re-integrated constantly. Communication has become a decisive production factor. Whereas mistakes in the physical material flow become evident sooner or later, those in the mental communication flow usually remain hidden.
In the cell:
the relevance of cell communication is quite vast, but major areas of fundamental research are often divided between the study of signals at the cell membrane and the study of signals within and between intracellular compartments.Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes.

Quantity and Variant Flexibility
In a human factory:
one of the predominant characteristics of production in a turbulent market is strong demand fluctuations and a simultaneous increase in the number of variants and their components. Whereas up until now it was possible to at least partially counter the variant problem with a skillful modular construction, the increasing quantity fluctuations pose a dilemma for enterprises. 
There are two basic production concepts :
A rigid production concept, characterized by extensively automated individual processes, linked workstations, long setup times and a small workforce usually operated in 2 or 3 shifts is defined by two limits in the output quantity
The aim of a flexible volume production concept is to cover the volume fluctuations in the market as well as possible by first extending the economic upper and lower limits 



By doing so, an economic production is even then possible when the sales volume is small—most likely due to an adjustable degree of automation. Moreover, it aims to quickly
adjust the technical upper limit, e.g., through modular workstations.

The planning of either a rigid or flexible volume concept is a mental process. 
In the cell:
The environments in which cells grow often change rapidly.6 For example, cells may consume all of a particular food source and must utilize others. To survive in a changing world, cells evolved have designed mechanisms for adjusting their biochemistry in response to signals indicating the environmental change. The adjustments can take many forms, including changes in the activities of preexisting enzyme molecules, changes in the rates of synthesis of new enzyme molecules, and changes in membrane transport processes.Filamentous Structures and Molecular Motors Enable Intracellular and Cellular Movement The development of the ability to move was another important stage in the evolution of cells  design invention  capable of adapting to a changing environment. Without this ability, nonphotosynthetic cells might have starved after consuming the nutrients available in their immediate vicinity.

Networking and Cooperation
External physical network and cooperation:
Of a human factory:
A clear ability to network externally with respect to logistics, organizational aspects, and communications technology has to be ensured in order to effectively co-operate with suppliers, development partners, and customers. Cooperations include development partners (for sub-systems), production partners (for part and component families) as well as logistic partners (for supplying parts, distributing goods and interim storage).
Of the cell:
Signals are transduced within cells or in between cells and thus form complex signaling networks. For instance, in the MAPK/ERK pathway is transduced from the cell surface to the cell nucleus by a series of protein-protein interactions, phosphorylation reactions, and other events. Signaling networks typically integrate protein-protein interaction networks, gene regulatory networks, and metabolic networks.
Internal networking and cooperation:
In a human factory:
The functional factory is organized into areas using the same technology through which a number of different products are routed e.g., mechanical processing, electronic manufacturing, and assembly.
In the cell:
Enzymes work in teams, with the product of one enzyme becoming the substrate for the next. The result is an elaborate network of metabolic pathways that provides the cell with energy and generates the many large and small molecules that the cell needs  8
The metabolic balance of a cell is amazingly stable. Whenever the balance is perturbed, the cell reacts so as to restore the initial state. The cell can adapt and continue to function during starvation or disease. Mutations of many kinds can damage or even eliminate particular reaction pathways, and yet—provided that certain minimum requirements are met—the cell survives. It does so because
an elaborate network of control mechanisms regulates and coordinates the rates of all of its reactions. These controls rest, ultimately, on the remarkable abilities of proteins to change their shape and their chemistry in response to changes in their immediate environment.
Proteins in the cell never act alone. Even the simplest cellular functions, such as transport of a molecule across the cellular membrane or defining the site of future cell division, are normally executed by groups of interacting proteins. These groups are best represented as protein networks, where nodes correspond to individual proteins and edges represent their interactions. The more complex the task, the larger and more complex is the underlying network, and ultimately all functional networks can be connected into a cell-wide network. 9
The structure of composite functional modules containing co-transcriptional regulation interaction and protein-protein interaction reflected the cooperation of transcriptional regulation and protein function implementation and was indicative of their important roles in essential cell functions. In addition, their structural and functional characteristics were closely related and suggesting the complexity of the cell regulatory system. 10





Modular organization
Of a human factory:
Starting with adapting the resources primarily in view of reducing overhead costs, business processes were radically reorganized along the value adding chain. Largely autonomous mini-factories were created within the factory from a number of product/ market combinations. Consequently, products and processes were also frequently redesigned to be more modular.

In the cell:
Many proteins, particularly those found in eukaryotic species, have a modular structure composed of two or more domains with different functions. For example, certain transcription factors have discrete domains involved with hormone binding, dimerization, and DNA binding. 7


Size and internal factory space organization, compartmentalization and layout 
In a human factory:
The compartmentalization of production functions and requirements into operational units that can be manipulated between alternate production schemes to achieve the optimal arrangement to fit a given set of needs. In a reconfigurable manufacturing system, many components are typically modular (e.g., machines, axes of motion, controls, and tooling – see example in the Figure below). When necessary, the modular components can be replaced or upgraded to better suit new applications. 


In the cell:




Compartmentalization increases the efficiency of many subcellular processes by concentrating the required components to a confined space within the cell. Where a specific condition is required to facilitate a given subcellular process, this may be locally contained so as not to disrupt the function of other subcellular compartments. For example, lysosomes require a lower pH in order to facilitate degradation of internalized material. Membrane bound proton pumps present on the lysosome maintain this condition.

Recycling Economy
In a human factory:
The products themselves should also be designed so that they consume as few as possible resources that are detrimental to the environment during their use. Moreover, the components and materials contained in them should be reused as much as possible or recycled.
In the cell:
Recycling Endosomes Regulate Plasma Membrane Composition 
most receptors are recycled and returned to the same plasma membrane domain from which they came; some proceed to a different domain of the plasma membrane, thereby mediating transcytosis; and some progress to lysosomes, where they are degraded. Cells can regulate the release of membrane proteins from recycling endosomes, thus adjusting the flux of proteins through the transcytotic pathway according to need. This regulation, the mechanism of which is uncertain, allows recycling endosomes to play an important part in adjusting the concentration of specific plasma membrane proteins.

Waste bin:
In a human factory:
Attention should be paid to manufacturing waste, e.g., metal chips as well as the ancillary and operating materials related to them such as emulsions, lubricants, grease, acids, alkaline solutions, etc.
In the cell:

Improperly processed mRNAs and other RNA debris (excised intron sequences, for example) are retained in the nucleus, where they are eventually degraded by the nuclear exosome, a large protein complex whose interior is rich in 3ʹ-to-5ʹ RNA exonucleases

Controlled factory implosion
Of a human factory:
Sometimes, factories are imploded to provide space for new buildings and new developments. 
In the cell:
apoptosis, programmed cell death
Like engineers carefully blowing up a bridge, cells have intricate, programmed suicide mechanisms. The signal is sent and an apparatus of destruction is activated. But suicide hardly fits the evolutionary narrative. Wasn’t this all about survival, reproductive advantages and leaving more offspring? Why would a cell evolve intricate and complex suicide machinery? 12

The make of machines and factories, and what it tells us in regard of molecular machines in the cell

The most complex molecular machines are proteins found within cells. 1 These include motor proteins, such as myosin, which is responsible for muscle contraction, kinesin, which moves cargo inside cells away from the nucleus along microtubules, and dynein, which produces the axonemal beating of motile cilia and flagella. These proteins and their nanoscale dynamics are far more complex than any molecular machines that have yet been artificially constructed.

Probably the most significant biological machine known is the ribosome. Other important examples include ciliary mobility. A high-level abstraction summary is that, "[i]n effect, the [motile cilium] is a nanomachine composed of perhaps over 600 proteins in molecular complexes, many of which also function independently as nanomachines." Flexible linker domains allow the connecting protein domains to recruit their binding partners and induce long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics. 


Engineering design process

All text in red requires INTELLIGENCE.  

Research
A significant amount of time is spent on locating information and researchConsideration should be given to the existing applicable literature, problems and successes associated with existing solutions, costs, and marketplace needs.

The source of information should be relevant, including existing solutions. Reverse engineering can be an effective technique if other solutions are available on the market. Other sources of information include the Internet, local libraries, available government documents, personal organizations, trade journals, vendor catalogs and individual experts available.

Feasibility

At first, a feasibility study is carried out after which schedules, resource plans and, estimates for the next phase are developed. The feasibility study is an evaluation and analysis of the potential of a proposed project to support the process of decision making. It outlines and analyses alternatives or methods of achieving the desired outcome. The feasibility study helps to narrow the scope of the project to identify the best scenario. A feasibility report is generated following which Post Feasibility Review is performed.
The purpose of a feasibility assessment is to determine whether the engineer's project can proceed into the design phase. This is based on two criteria: the project needs to be based on an achievable idea, and it needs to be within cost constraints. It is important to have engineers with experience and good judgment to be involved in this portion of the feasibility study.

Conceptualization

Following Feasibility, a concept study (conceptualization, conceptual engineering) is performed. A concept study is the phase of project planning that includes producing ideas and taking into account the pros and cons of implementing those ideas. This stage of a project is done to minimize the likelihood of error, manage costs, assess risks, and evaluate the potential success of the intended project.
Once an engineering issue is defined, solutions must be identified. These solutions can be found by using ideation, the mental process by which ideas are generated. The following are the most widely used techniques:
trigger word - a word or phrase associated with the issue at hand is stated, and subsequent words and phrases are evoked.

morphological chart - independent design characteristics are listed in a chart, and different engineering solutions are proposed for each solution. Normally, a preliminary sketch and short report accompany the morphological chart.

synectics - the engineer imagines him or herself as the item and asks, "What would I do if I were the system?" This unconventional method of thinking may find a solution to the problem at hand. The vital aspects of the conceptualization step is synthesis. Synthesis is the process of taking the element of the concept and arranging them in the proper way. Synthesis creative process is present in every design.

brainstorming - this popular method involves thinking of different ideas, typically as part of a small group, and adopting these ideas in some form as a solution to the problem

Design requirements
Establishing design requirements is one of the most important elements in the design process, and this task is normally performed at the same time as the feasibility analysis. The design requirements control the design of the project throughout the engineering design process. Some design requirements include hardware and software parameters, maintainability, availability, and testability

Preliminary design
The preliminary design, or high-level design (also called FEED), bridges the gap between the design concept and the detailed design phase. In this task, the overall system configuration is defined, and schematics, diagrams and layouts of the project will provide early project configuration. During detailed design and optimization, the parameters of the part being created will change, but the preliminary design focuses on creating the general framework to build the project on.


Detailed design

Following FEED is the Detailed Design (Detailed Engineering) phase which may consist of procurement as well. This phase builds on the already developed FEED, aiming to further elaborate each aspect of the project by complete description through solid modeling,drawings as well as specifications.

Some of the said specifications include:
Operating parameters
Operating and nonoperating environmental stimuli
Test requirements
External dimensions
Maintenance and testability provisions
Materials requirements
Reliability requirements
External surface treatment
Design life
Packaging requirements
External marking

Computer-aided design (CAD) programs have made the detailed design phase more efficient. This is because a CAD program can provide optimization, where it can reduce volume without hindering the part's quality. It can also calculate stress and displacementusing the finite element method to determine stresses throughout the part. It is the engineer's responsibility to determine whether these stresses and displacements are allowable, so the part is safe.

Production planning and tool design
The production planning and tool design consist in planning how to mass-produce the project and which tools should be used in the manufacturing of the part. Tasks to complete in this step include selecting the material, selection of the production processes, determination of the sequence of operations, and selection of tools, such as jigs, fixtures, metal cutting and metal forming tools. This task also involves testing a working prototype to ensure the created part meets qualification standards.

Production
With the completion of 
qualification testing and prototype testing, the engineering design process is finalized. The part must now be manufactured, and the machines must be inspected regularly to make sure that they do not break down and slow production.


1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_machine
2) https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1wKdTv5AeYQuVF4AcK6jhIhnSUYWEut_8m2dGQrjDXOo/edit#slide=id.g3217d827_0_49
3) http://www.nature.com/scitable/topic/cell-communication-14122659
4) http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2229-development-of-multicellular-organisms?highlight=multicellular
5) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_differentiation
6) http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150908/ncomms9224/abs/ncomms9224.html
7) Genetics, Analysis and Principles, 4th edition, page 690
8  Molecular biology of the cell, B.Alberts, 6th ed. page 141
9) https://www.mpg.de/9271053/annual-report-2014-sourjik.pdf
10) http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/82
11) Molecular biology of the cell, B.Alberts, 6th ed. page 737
12) http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2193-apoptosis-cell-s-essential-mechanism-of-programmed-suicide-points-to-design?highlight=apoptosis



Last edited by Admin on Thu May 25, 2017 1:45 pm; edited 24 times in total

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Factory and machine planning and design, and what it tells us about cell factories and molecular machines

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2245-factory-and-machine-planning-and-design-and-what-it-tells-us-about-cell-factories-and-molecular-machines

Some steps to consider in regard of factory planning, design and operation

All text in red requires INTELLIGENCE :

Choosing Manufacturing   and Factory location
Selecting Morphology of Factory Types
Factory planning
Factory design
Information management within factory planning and design
Factory layout planning
Equipment supply
Process planning
Production Planning and Control
establishing various internal and external  Communication networks 
Establishing Quantity and Variant Flexibility
The planning of either a rigid or flexible volume concept depending of what is required
Establishing Networking and Cooperation
Establishing Modular organization
Size and internal factory space organization, compartmentalization and layout 
Planning of recycling Economy
Waste management
Controlled factory implosion programming


All these procedures and operational steps are required and implemented in human factories, and so in biological cells which operate like factories. It takes a lot of faith to believe, human factories require intelligence, but cells, far more complex and elaborated, do not require intelligence to make them, and intelligent programming to work in a self sustaining and self replicating manner, and to self disctruct, when required.  

Molecular machines: 

The most complex molecular machines are proteins found within cells. 1 These include motor proteins, such as myosin, which is responsible for muscle contraction, kinesin, which moves cargo inside cells away from the nucleus along microtubules, and dynein, which produces the axonemal beating of motile cilia and flagella. These proteins and their nanoscale dynamics are far more complex than any molecular machines that have yet been artificially constructed.

Probably the most significant biological machine known is the ribosome. Other important examples include ciliary mobility. A high-level-abstraction summary is that, "[i]n effect, the [motile cilium] is a nanomachine composed of perhaps over 600 proteins in molecular complexes, many of which also function independently as nanomachines." Flexible linker domains allow the connecting protein domains to recruit their binding partners and induce long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics. 

Engineering design process

The engineering design process is a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional products and processes. 2

All text in red requires INTELLIGENCE  

locating information and research
feasibility study 
evaluation and analysis of the potential of a proposed project 
process of decision making. Outlines and analyses alternatives or methods of achieving the desired outcome
feasibility report is generated 
determine whether the engineer's project can proceed into the design phase
the project needs to be based on an achievable idea
concept study (conceptualization, conceptual engineering
project planning 
solutions must be identified
ideation, the mental process by which ideas are generated
morphological chart - independent design characteristics are listed in a chart, and different engineering solutions are proposed for each solution. Normally, a preliminary sketch and short report accompany the morphological chart.
the engineer imagines him or herself as the item and asks, "What would I do if I were the system?" 
Synthesis is the process of taking the element of the concept and arranging them in the proper way. 
Synthesis creative process is present in every design.
thinking of different ideas, typically as part of a small group, and adopting these ideas in some form as a solution to the problem
Establishing design requirements is one of the most important elements in the design process
feasibility analysis
Some design requirements include hardware and software parameters, maintainability, availability, and testability
the overall system configuration is defined, and schematics, diagrams, and layouts of the project will provide early project configuration. 
detailed design and optimization
the preliminary design focuses on creating the general framework to build the project on.
further elaborate each aspect of the project by complete description through solid modeling,drawings as well as specifications.
Some of the said specifications include:
Operating parameters
Operating and nonoperating environmental stimuli
Test requirements
External dimensions
Maintenance and testability provisions
Materials requirements
Reliability requirements
External surface treatment
Design life
considering packaging requirements and implant them
External marking

production planning and tool design

planning how to mass-produce the project and which tools should be used in the manufacturing of the part. 
selecting the material, selection of the production processes, determination of the sequence of operations, and selection of tools, such as jigs, fixtures, metal cutting and metal forming tools. 
start of manufactoring

the machines must be inspected regularly to make sure that they do not break down and slow production


Someone can object and say, that human invented machines do nor replicate, and therefor the comparison is invalid. Fact is however, that replication adds further complexity , since humans have not been able to construct self replicating machines in large scale. This is imho what every living cell is able and programmed to do. In order to so so, extremely complex celluar mechanisms are required, like DNA replication. 

1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_machine
2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering_design_process

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Imagine you would be the most genius inventor of all time, more intelligent than the ten most brilliant and intelligent men of all time, Faraday, Spinoza, DaVinci, Descartes, Galilei, Leibnitz, Newton, Einstein, Goethe, and Terence Tao ( i.Q 230 ) and responsible for the creation  of:

-The Sunway TaihuLight - the most powerful and fastest supercomputer on Earth, installed in China, with 125 petaflops, 10,649,600 cores, and 1.31 petabytes of primary memory, using 10.6 million cores, and five times faster than the fastest supercomputer in u.s.a.
-the world's smallest hard disk' with 500x more storage space than best hard drive,  manipulating chlorine atoms in order to store a kilobyte of data on a microscopic storage drive
-some of the most advanced computer programming languages, like Rust, which runs incredibly fast, SQL, JAVA, Python, C++, and a few more.
-the most Technologically Advanced, extreme Power Plant in the world, a hydropower plant like no other, able to generate as much electricity as a nuclear power plant and, at the flip of a switch, act as a giant battery.
-inventor of the World's largest concentrated solar plant, the Noor complex in Morocco
-the inventor and builder  of the most advanced manufacturing facility in der world, today Tesla's  NUMMI Plant in Fremont, California, accommodating 14000 workers, which on top would have the ability to self-replicate ( which adds a huge quantity of more complex processes ) with fully automated recognition mechanisms and gates that permit  only the right cargo in and out, which has sophisticated check and error detection mechanisms all along the production process,  the ability to compare correctly produced parts to faulty ones and discard the faulty ones, and repeat the process to make the correct ones ( no recall is ever required ) and all this process fully automated and pre-programmed,
- the Most Complicated Watch Ever Made, the Vacheron Constantin Reference 57260 pocket watch with 57 distinct complications, sold for a record of us$ 11 million

now imagine this creator would give you all his inventions as a free gift. And you would not only not recognize him for what he is, did, and gave you for free,  but deny and ignore him completely, as if he would not exist.
Furthermore, you would DESTRUCT his free gift, and blame him for a unperfect job.  

How do you think would he feel with your behavior?

God is that inventor. He made your body and each single cell with:

- a gene regulatory and expression network and a transcription factor code, a  specific and pre-programmed code of gene expression which knows when, where and how to turn a gene on or off to be expressed, transcribed, and translated to produce specific cell products required in the cell for various tasks
- a nucleus, which stores DNA,  the smallest storage device possible and known, a trillion times denser than a CD, and far denser than the world's smallest hard disk,
- the genetic code, equivalent to a computer language, but 1 million times more robust than any comparable code, and less prone to errors
- encoding, transmission, and decoding of the information stored in DNA through a ultracomplex molecular machinery, like RNA polymerase, the Ribosome, chaperones etc.
- mitochondria, the power plant in the cell, which provides energy to your cells, with its amazing, almost 100% efficient ATP synthase machines,  far surpassing even the most advanced human technology
- photosynthesis, about 95% efficient when it comes to the first step of capturing light’s energy, far ahead of any human invented  solar photovoltaic system
- the cell, the most advanced factory,  the most detailed and concentrated organizational structure known to humanity
- circadian clocks, or circadian oscillators, are a biochemical oscillator that oscillates with a stable phase relationship to solar time

his inventive and creative power exceeds anything we could ever imagine or fathom. But we misuse our body, many destroy it with drugs, alcohol, various kinds of addictions, and forget completely about our creator and forget, that our body is not ours, but we are only administrators of it, besides our time, and all goods we receive. We are accountable for all we do.

Its not for nothing, that the apostle Paul writes in 1.Corinthians 3:
16 Do you not know that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? 17 If anyone defiles the temple of God, God will destroy him. For the temple of God is holy, which temple you are.

But God in his foreknowledge knew we would decide against him, and provided a solution for all destruction he knew we would provoke.  The bible says that this universe one day will be destructed in flames, and he will create a new place, that is eternal.  And he invites you to become a resident there in the future. All depends on you if you want to go there, or not.

All Things Made New
Apocalypse 21 Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also, there was no more sea. 2 Then I, John,[a] saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. 4 And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.” 5 Then He who sat on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” And He said to me,[b] “Write, for these words are true and faithful.” 6 And He said to me, “It is done![c] I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. 7

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