Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins

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Intelligent Design, the best explanation of Origins » Theory of evolution » Number of cells in the human body, and synapses in the human brain

Number of cells in the human body, and synapses in the human brain

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Number of cells in the human body, and synapses in the human brain

http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2597-number-of-cells-in-the-human-body-and-synapses-in-the-human-brain



There are 37.2 Trillion Cells in Your Body. That is 37,200,000,000,000 Cells

Each contains 2,3 Billion ( 2,300000000)  Proteins



That sums up to 85560000000000000000000 Proteins. That is 8,556^21   Proteins. That is 8,5 Vigintillion Proteins.

So average, there would have to be an increase of 2912 cells per day by natural selection, producing the information to make the right kind of cells. The task would be to specify EACH new cell  precisely through a master program which, coordinates, instructs and defines each Cell in regard of its

1. Kind or type of cell ( Histology),
2. Cell size
3. It's specific function,
4. Position and place in the body. This is crucial. Limbs like legs, fins, eyes etc. must all be placed at the right place.  
5. How it is interconnected with other cells,
6. What communication it requires to communicate with other cells, and the setup of the communication channels
7. What specific sensory and stimuli functions are required and does it have to acquire in regard to its environment and surroundings?
8. What specific new regulatory functions it acquires
9. When will the development program of the organism express the genes to grow the new cells during development?
11. Precisely how many new cell types must be produced for each tissue and organ?
10. Specification of the cell - cell adhesion and which ones will be used in each cell to adhere to the neighbor cells ( there are 4 classes )
11. Programming of  time period the cell keeps alive in the body, and when is it time to self-destruct and be replaced by newly produced cells of the same kind
12. Set up its specific nutrition demands

669.760.000.000.000, or 669 trillion specifications per day during 3,5bio years.


A current estimation of human total cell number calculated for a variety of organs and cell types is presented. These partial data correspond to a total number of 3.72 × 10^13, or
3.7.200.000.000.000 cells.

In humans, there are about 200 different types of cells, and within these cells, there are about 20 different types of structures or organelles. 2  37.200.000.000.000

If we suppose that the first unicellular life forms emerged 3.5bi years ago, that is 3.500.000.000 years, then there would have to be an average increase of 1.062,857 cells each year, or 2912 cells per day, or 121 cells per hour to get the number of cells of the human body. Each of these cells would have to differentiate to form the different tissues and organs, the emergence of a signaling language,  right cell signaling at the right place, at the right moment, to provoke cell movement and cell proliferation to the right place, to form the right organs and tissues, and interlink them correctly in a functional way.

The human central nervous system (CNS) is the most complex living organ in the known universe. 6  Each synapse functions like a microprocessor, and tens of thousands of them can connect a single neuron to other nerve cells. In the cerebral cortex alone, there are roughly 125 trillion synapses, which is about how many stars fill 1,500 Milky Way galaxies.  The human brain is often considered to be the most cognitively capable among mammalian brains and to be much larger than expected for a mammal of our body size. 4  We find that the adult male human brain contains on average 86.1 +/- 8.1 billion NeuN-positive cells.   The total myelinated fiber length in a human brain varies from 150,000 to 180,000 km in young individuals. The total number of synapses in the human neocortex is approximately 1,5 x 10^14 (0.15 quadrillion), that is 1500000000000000 synapses. The brain has more switches than all the computers and routers and Internet connections on Earth. 5 These connections should reveal a great deal about how the brain works, for while a single nerve cell may be enormously complex, it is in the massive networking of these many neurons that the brain’s fantastic processing and cognitive powers are likely to emerge.

According to mainstream science, Flatworms are the earliest known animals to have a brain, and supposedly evolved 500 mio years ago.
It would have had to produce 3.000.000 synapse connections per year, or 8200 new synapses per day, or 342 per hour. These synapses would have to make the right synaptic connections to form a functional nervous system.

The human brain, due to evolution, or design ?!

Brain Evolution Ralph L. Holloway
Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York, NY

SYNOPSIS
The size of the hominid brain increased from about 450 ml at 3.5 million years ago to our current average volume of 1350 ml. These changes through time were sometimes gradual but not always.
Now let's make a little calculation. The human brain has 1500000000000000 synapses. According to above claim, the hominid brain of our ur-ancestor, 3,5mio years ago, had a brain, a third of the size of homo sapiens today, that is 500000000000000 synapses approximately. That means there was an increase in a number of brain synapses of 1000000000000000 in 3.500.000 years. That means, there had to be an increase of 1.000.000.000.000.000: 3.500.000 of approximately 285700000 per year, or 782000 per day, or 32600 per hour.
In computing terms, the brain’s nerve cells, called neurons, are the processors, while synapses, the junctions where neurons meet and transmit information to each other, are analogous to memory. These synapses are not " just so" interconnected. The connections process and store information and must be the correct ones..... like a computer network.

Now let's suppose the average age of each generation was 50 years. that means that there would have been 70000 generations in 3,5mio years. That means, in each generation, there would have had to be an increase of 14300000000, or 14,3 billion new synapse connections.....or 8,3 million new neurons per generation.

Just for comparison:
https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/163051-simulating-1-second-of-human-brain-activity-takes-82944-processors
The brain is a deviously complex biological computing device that even the fastest supercomputers in the world fail to emulate. Well, that’s not entirely true anymore. Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Technology Graduate University in Japan and Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany have managed to simulate a single second of human brain activity in a very, very powerful computer. It took 40 minutes with the combined muscle of 82,944 processors in K computer to get just 1 second of biological brain processing time.

The prevalence of low-level function in four such experiments indicates that roughly one in 10^64 signature-consistent sequences forms a working domain. Combined with the estimated prevalence of plausible hydropathic patterns (for any fold) and of relevant folds for particular functions, this implies the overall prevalence of sequences performing a specific function by any domain-sized fold may be as low as 1 in 10^77, adding to the body of evidence that functional folds require highly extraordinary sequences.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321723

So how could natural selection, genetic drift or gene flow have produced the correct 32600 brain connections average per hour during 3,5mio years?
Sounds legit.....

The waiting time problem in a model hominin population
We have used comprehensive numerical simulations to show that in populations of modest size (such as a hominin population), there is a serious waiting time problem that can constrain macroevolution. Our studies show that in such a population there is a significant waiting time problem even in terms of waiting for a specific point mutation to arise and be fixed (minimally, about 1.5 million years). We show that the waiting time problem becomes very severe when more than one mutation is required to establish a new function. On a practical level, the waiting time problem greatly inhibits the establishment of any new function that requires any string or set of specific linked co-dependent mutations. We show that the waiting time problem becomes more extreme as string length increases, as fitness benefit decreases, and as population size decreases. In a population of 10,000 the establishment of a string of just two specific co-dependent mutations tends to be extremely problematic (conservatively requiring an average waiting time of at least 84 million years). For nucleotide strings of moderate length (eight or above), waiting times will typically exceed the estimated age of the universe – even when using highly favorable settings. Many levels of evidence support our conclusions, including the results of virtually all the other researchers who have looked at the waiting time problem in the context of establishing specific sequences in specific genomic locations within a small hominin-type population. In small populations the waiting time problem appears to be profound, and deserves very careful examination. 7

1. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03014460.2013.807878
2. http://sciencenetlinks.com/student-teacher-sheets/cells-your-body/
3. http://sci-hub.cc/10.1016/S0531-5565(02)00151-1
4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19226510
5. http://darwins-god.blogspot.com.br/
6. Chapter 2 Introduction to Brain Anatomy Wieslaw L. Nowinski
7. https://tbiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12976-015-0016-z
8. http://reasonandscience.heavenforum.org/t2641-how-many-proteins-are-in-a-cell

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